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Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study (OECD) For justification of read across please refer to section 13.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1990
Report Date:
1990
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Studies on the prenatal toxicity of 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2- methyl-1-propanol in rats and rabbits following inhalation exposure
Author:
Klimisch H-J and Hellwig J
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 27(1), 77-89
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
No information
Author:
RIFM
Year:
2009
Bibliographic source:
RIFM database

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
BASF AG, Department of Toxicology
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 3-methyl-l-butanol
- Test substance No. 88/56 [H 21670]
- Physical state: liquid/colourless
- Analytical purity: 98.6% (acc. to report Feb 2 1988)
- Stability under test conditions: The stability was ensured for the study period under the specified storage conditions by reanalysis ( see report of Nov 25 1988)
- Storage condition of test material: at room temperature

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Dr. K. Thomae GmbH, D-7950 Biberach/Riss, FRG). The animals were free from any clinically evident signs prior to the beginning of the study.
- Age at study initiation: ca 11 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: ca 216 g
- Housing: singly in wire cages (type D III of Becker & Co, Castrop-Rauxel, FRG)
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): KLIBA rat/mouse laboratory diet 24-343-4 10 mm pellets, Klingentalmühle AG, CH-4303 Kaiseraugst, Switzerland; during the exposure-free observation period
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): tap water; during the exposure-free observation period
- Acclimation period: at least 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS in fully air-conditioned rooms
- Temperature (°C): 20 - 24
- Humidity (%): 30 - 70
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 / 12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure (if applicable):
whole body
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: the animals were exposed singly in wire cages (D III) in glass-steel inhalation chambers (manufacturer: BASF Aktiengesellschaft), Volume Vz 1,100 1 (test group 1, 2 and 3), Volume V 2 1,600 1 (test group 0 and parts of the test groups during the preflow period).
- Method of holding animals in test chamber: whole-body exposure system (glass-steel inhalation chamber) with a volume of about 1.1 m3 (test groups 1 - 3); volume of the inhalation chamber of the control group: 1.6 m3
- Source and rate of air: the test substance was supplied by means of two continuously driven piston pumps (Unita, Braun) in test group 1, a continuously metering pump (Optimat MP) in test group 2, and another continuously metering pump (Desaga) in test group 3 to a vaporizer heated with a circulating thermostat and evaporated. The evaporation temperatures are shown in the following table.

_______________________________________________________________________________
Test group /ml/hour /Evaporation temperature (°C) /Supply air (l/hour) /Exhaust air (l/hour)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0 /Fresh air /- /30000 /29500
1 /13.7 - 14.3 /50 /21500 /22000
2 /75.6 - 82.8 /60 /21500 /22000
3 /295 - 305 /70 /21500 /22000
_______________________________________________________________________________

A stream of fresh air measured with a rotameter took up the vapors. A further stream of fresh air was passed in downstream of the vaporizer. After passing through a mixing device, this mixture of vapors and air was supplied to exposure system

- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: the pressure in the inhalation chambers was measured continuously (inclined manometer) and recorded, as a rule, 3 times/exposure. Conditioned supply air ( about 50% humidity, 22 °C) was used for the exposure in all test groups. The temperature in the exposure systems was measured continuously (digital thermometer, Diehl) and recorded, as a rule, 3 times/exposure. The relative humidity in the chambers was checked with a humidity measuring probe (Vaisala) at least once a day and also recorded.
- Air flow rate: all air flows, supply air and exhaust air were adjusted by means of flowmeters (rotameter) for all test groups and recorded, as a rule, 6 times/exposure.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: the concentration in the inhalation chambers was monitored by means of a GC-method. The concentrations of the test groups were analyzed by gas chromatography after absorption of MEB samples in 2-propanol.
The gas chromatographs were calibrated with weighed amounts of the test substance.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The concentration in the inhalation chambers was monitored by means of a GC-method.
The concentrations of the test groups were analyzed by gas chromatography after absorption of MEB samples in 2-propanol.
The gas chromatographs were calibrated with weighed amounts of the test substance.
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- If cohoused:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/4
- Length of cohabitation: 15.5 hours (overnight)
- Verification of same strain and source of both sexes: yes
- Proof of pregnancy: sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
days 6 - 15 of gestation
Frequency of treatment:
6 hours/day
Duration of test:
20 days
No. of animals per sex per dose:
25 (in driplicate in each group)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: in a pretest no maternal toxic effects could be observed at concentrations up to 5 mg/l, which is the limit test concentration. Because fetotoxic effects were reported with other alcohols at somewhat higher concentrations, the highest concentration selected for the study was 10 mg/l, which is near to the saturated vapor concentration at approx. 20°C (12 - 14 mg/l). In order to determine dose-response relationships, an intermediate (2.5 mg/ml) and a low (0.5 mg/ml) concentration levels were also selected.

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: the behavior and state of health of the test animals were checked on workdays at least 3 times on exposure days and, as a rule, once during the post-exposure observation period.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: the body weight of the animals was checked on day 0 day of dectection of sperm) and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 20 p.c. As a rule, the animals were weighed at the same time of the day. The difference between the body weight on the day of weighing and the body weight on the previous weighing was calculated. Moreover the same was done for 3 different study periods:
* preflow period (day 0- 6 p.c.)
* exposure period (days 6 - 15 p.c.)
* observation period (days 15 - 20 p.c.).
These values are defined as body weight change. Moreover, the corrected body weight gain (body weight on day 20 p.c. minus the body weight on day 6 p.c. minus weight of the uterus before it was opened) was determined after the dams had been sacrificed at the end of the study.

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice: on day 20 p.c. the dams (as well as moribund dams) were sacrificed by cercical dislocation and the fetuses removed by cesarean section. These animals and dams which died intercurrently as well as the contents of uterus from these animals were investigated, if possible in the same way as at terminal sacrifice (exception: uterus weight).
- Organs examined: after the dams had been sacrificed, they were necropsied and assessed by gross pathology. The uterus and the ovaries were removed and the following data were recorded: weight of uterus before it was opened, number of corpora lutea, number and distribution of implantation sites classified as live fetuses or dead implantations: early resorptions (only decidual or placental tissues visible or according to SALEWSKI from uteri from apparently non-pregnant animals and the empty uterus horn in the case of single-horn pregnancy); late resorptions (embryonic or fetal tissue in addition to placental tissue visible); dead fetuses (hypoxemic fetuses which did not breathe spontaneously after the uterus had been opened). Furthermore, calculations of conception rate and pre and postimplantation losses were carried out.

OTHER: a check for dead animals was made daily.
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations:Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Head examinations: Yes: all per litter
Statistics:
The statistical evaluation of the data was carried out on the computer systems of the Department of Toxicology (Dr. Hoffmann responsible). Examinations of the dams and fetuses Dunnett's Test (8 - 9) was used for statistical evaluation of body weight, body weight change, corrected body weight gain (net maternal body weight change), weight of the uterus before it was opened, weight of fetuses, weight of placentae, corpora lutea, implantations, pre and postimplantation loss, resorptions and live fetuses. Fisher's Exact Test ( 10) was used for statistical evaluation of conception rate, mortality (of the dams) and all fetal findings.
Significances resulting from these tests have been indicated in the tables (a for p < 0.05, b for p < 0.01).
Indices:
- The conception rate (in 3;) was calculated according to the following formula: (number of pregnant animals/ number of fertilized animals)*100
- The preimplantation loss (in %) was calculated according to the following formula: (number of corpora lutea - number of implantations/number of corpora lutea)*100
- The postimplantation loss (in %) was calculated from the following formula: (number of implantations - number of live fetuses/number of implantations)*100
Historical control data:
Historical control studies from Himalayan rabbits carried out in BASF's Department of Toxicology between 1986 and 1990

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Only transient impairment in the body weight change of the dams was observed at the beginning of the exposure period (days 6 - 9 p.c.).

Effect levels (maternal animals)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
2.5 mg/L air (nominal)
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
The fetuses did not show any substance-related effects (neither embryo-/fetotoxic nor teratogenic effects).

Effect levels (fetuses)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
10 mg/L air (nominal)
Basis for effect level:
other: teratogenicity

Fetal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

1) Examinations of the dams:

- Clinical Examinations:

Only pregnant dams were used for the calculations of mean maternal body weights and body weight change. Only pregnant dams with scheduled sacrifice (day 20 p.c.) were taken for the calculation of mean gravid uterine weights, mean net maternal body weight change (corrected body weight gain) and summary of reproduction data.

In this study 3, 4 and 2 females (respectively in test group 1, 4 and 3) were excluded from the above mentioned calculations since they did not conceive (while one animal died in the test group 2).

*Clinical signs and findings: there were no substance-induced clinical signs or findings in all test groups (0 - 3) at any time of the study period (preflow, exposure, post-exposure observation).

*Lethality: no deaths were recorded throughout the study period in test groups 0, 2 and 3. One animal of test group 1, which was not pregnant, was found dead in cage on day 12 p.c.

 

- Body weight:

The body weights of all animals in test group 1 compared to the control (0) were not statistically significant. In test group 2, the body weight change was statistically significantly increased (p < 0.05) between days 12 -15 p.c. In test group 3, compared to the control (group 0), the body weight change was statistically significantly decreased (p < 0.05) between days 6 -9 p.c. and statistically significantly increased (p < 0.01) between day 12-15 p.c.

Over the total exposure period (days 6-15 p.c.) no substance-related effects were observed. It cannot be decided clearly, whether there was a slight effect on body weight retardation in the first days of exposure (6 - 9 p.c.) followed by an adaptation/recovery phase in the further days of exposure (12 - 15 p.c.) or whether this is an incidental finding. In case this effect may be considered as a very slight indication of maternal toxicity only during the first phase of exposure to a very high concentration of 10 mg/l of test substance.

 

- Body weight change:

The results of the corrected body weight gain (body weight on day 20 p.c. minus body weight on day 6 p.c. minus weight of the uterus before it was opened) do not show any differences of biological relevance between the groups.

 

- Examinations of the dams at termination

*Necropsy findings: there were no substance-related observations at necropsy in any of the dams.

*Uterus weight: the uterus weights of the animals were not influenced by the exposure to the test substance.

*Reproduction data of dams: the conception rate varied between 80 and 100%. There were no substance-related and/or statistically significant differences between the groups in conception rate, in the mean number of corpora lutea and implantation sites or in the values calculated for the pre- and the postimplantation losses, the number of resorptions and viable fetuses. The differences evident are considered to be incidental and within the normal range of deviations for animals of this strain and age (also compared to the lab's historical control data).

 

2) Examinations of the fetuses

- Sex distribution of fetuses:

The sex distribution of the fetuses in test groups 1- 3 (0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/l) was comparable with the control fetuses (the differences observed in comparison being without any biological relevance).

 

- Weight of placentae:

The mean placental weights in test groups 1-3 (0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/l) were not influenced by the administration of the test substance to the dams (the differences observed being without any biological relevance).

 

- Weight of fetuses:

The mean fetal weights were not influenced by the test substance exposure (all values are within the range of biological variation (also comparable to the historical control values).

 

- External examination of the fetuses:

The external examination of the fetuses revealed only one malformation (polydactyly) in one fetus out of 326 fetuses in the highest dose group (10 mg/l) and no variations in any group.

So-called unclassified observations were recorded for 4 fetuses of the control group (blood coagulum around placenta), 9 fetuses (from one litter) in test group 2 (2.5 mg/l) (placentae necrobiotic) and 1 fetus of the highest dose group (10 mg/l) (placentae fused).

 

- Soft tissue examinations of the fetuses:

The examination of the organs of the fetuses revealed two malformations in test group 2 (2.5 mg/l). For one fetus a globular shaped heart, for another one dextrocardia was recorded. Variations were detected in all groups. The very common finding (dilated renal pelvis) in the rat strain used in this study occurred without any dose-response relationship. The occurrence of the other variation (hydroureter) did not show any statistically significant difference between the groups. The examination of the organs of the fetuses revealed no so-called unclassified observations (like blood coagulum around the bladder) in any test group.

 

- Skeletal examination of the fetuses:

Various malformations of the sternebrae (sternebra(e) bipartite, ossification centers dislocated, cleft sternum) and/or the vertebral column (e.g. thoracic vertebral body/bodies dumbbell-shaped (asym.) or bipartite (asym.)) were seen in very few fetuses (4 - 8) in all test groups, the differences not being statistically significant. The variations elicited were related to the ribs shortened or missing 13th, accessory 14th ribs or rudimentary cervical ribs) and the sternum (sternebra(e) of irregular shape, bipartite or accessory sternebra) and were found in all groups to about the same extent with the exception of a lower incidence of shortened 13thrib(s) in the highest dose group.

In all groups signs of retardations (incomplete or missing ossification of hyoid, skull, metacarpal or metatarsal bones, vertebral bodies and/or sternebra(e)) were found without any clear differences of biological relevance between the groups.

 

Applicant's summary and conclusion