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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to birds: acute oral toxicity test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Already evaluated by the Competent Authorities for Biocides and Existing Substance Regulations.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1988

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
The doses were administered as a single sose via gavage with the test substance suspended in Tylose (CMC) with each dose adjusted to the individual body weights of the birds. Birds were weighed predose and on day 14 post dose.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Cu2O was suspended in Tylose
Dose method:
gavage
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and analysis of diet:
Cu2O was suspended in Tylose and provided by gavage using a non-flexible stomach tube

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Colinus virginianus

Study design

Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration (if not bolus):
14 d
Post exposure observation period:
see study summary
No. of animals per sex per dose and/or stage:
20 males and 20 females
Control animals:
no
Nominal and measured doses / concentrations:
1000,1300,1600 and 2000 mg/kg body weight
doses adjusted to administer 1 ml/animal

Examinations

Details on examinations and observations:
mortality , body weight, behavior, post-mortum
Details on reproductive parameters:
not assessed
Reference substance (positive control):
no

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Duration (if not bolus):
14 d
Dose descriptor:
other: see summary
Effect level:
ca. 1 400 mg/kg bw
Conc. / dose based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: see summary

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The study results into an LD50 of 1400 mg/kg body wt.
Cu2O was administered in Tylose to enhance adsorption and through gavage.
This procedure therefore by-passes normal copper homeostasis.
Executive summary:

OECD Guidelines No. 401 (May 1981)Birds were purchased from a commercial source for use in the definitive study. Birds were weighed predose and on day 14 post dose. The doses were administered via gavage with the test substance suspended in Tylose (CMC) with each dose adjusted to the individual body weights of the birds. Food and water were availablead libitumduring the study. Food consumption was not reported. The birds were subjected to 12 hours light and 12 hours dark daily. Temperature and relative humidity were monitored and kept within a narrow range. The birds were observed daily for adverse effects. No mortality was noted during either the range finder or the definitive study. After 14 days the survivors were sacrificed and subjected to macroscopic examination.

The 24 hour and 14 day LC50s are presented in 5.2.1 below. The slopes the 7 and 14 day data are identical and show as a single line on the mortality curve in 4.2.5 above. The slope of the 24 hour curve is 1.36 and the slope of the 14 day curve is 1.30. During post mortem and final autopsies, no anatomical-pathological findings were noted in the thorax or cranial cavities. In the abdomen, there was hyperaemia of the gastrointestinal tract of the acute mortalities.

Additional adverse effects are summarized as follows:

1000 mg/kg – frightened up to 5 days, reduced reflexes through day 7, ruffled feathers, greasy mucosae, soft and greasy faeces, normal food consumption and weight gains, acute symptoms, sedation and incoordination.

1300 mg/kg – apathy til frightened, clearly diminished reflexes, dirty and bristled feathers, greasy mucosae, soft and greasy faeces, reduced food and water consumption and weight gains, acute symptoms, sedation, ruffled, tremor, titubation, abdominal ache, one acute and one delayed mortality.

1600 mg/kg – apathy til frightened, clearly diminished reflexes, dirty and bristled feathers, greasy mucosae, soft and greasy faeces, clearly reduced food and water consumption and weight gains, acute symptoms, sedation, ruffled, tremor, titubation, abdominal ache, seven acute and two delayed mortalities.

1600 mg/kg – all animals died within 24 hours of treatment, acute symptoms, sedation, tremor, titubation, abdominal ache, exohthalmos, and exitus, ten acute mortalities.