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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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High quality chronic single-species NOEC/(L(E)C10 values are available for 13  freshwater invertebrate  species.  A chronic Biotic Ligand Model was developed for D. magna and validated for 4 additional speicies . The NOECs and  the chronic invertebrates  Biotic ligand models (BLM) are carried forward to the risk characterisation. 
High quality chronic single-species NOEC/(L(E)C10 values are available for 18 marine invertebrate species. The observed effects are related to the organic carbon contant of the test waters. The NOECS and organic carbon relationships are carried forward to the risk characterisation.

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Freshwater invertebrate NOECS

High quality chronic NOEC/(L(E) C10 values are available for 13 species: 1 rotifer species (Brachionus calyciflorus); 3 insect species (Clistoronia magnifica; Chironomus riparius; Paratanytarsus parthenogeneticus), 4 mollusc species (Juga plicifera, Campeloma decisum; Villosa iris; Dreissenia polymorpha), 5 crustacean species (Ceriodaphnia dubia; Daphnia magna; Daphnia pulex; Hyalella azteca; Gammarus pulex).

Individual NOEC/(L(E) C10 values range between 4 µg Cu/L (Cerodaphnia dubia) to 188 µg Cu/L (Daphnia magna reproduction).

The NOECs are used to derive “species geo-metric mean” NOEC values for each endpoint and the most sensitive endpoint for each of the 13 species of invertebrates retained as "species-mean" NOEC values. These "species mean" NOEC values range from 6.0 µg/l Cu for the snailJuga plicifera(mortality; 1 test value) to 50.3 µg/l Cu amphipodHyalella azteca(mortality) and are carried forward for the PNEC derivation. 20 NOECs are available for standard species, with internationally agreed protocols. For these species, the "species mean" NOECS are derived (C. dubia(13.1 µg Cu /L),D. magna(12.6 µg Cu/L) and 14.5 (D. pulex)) and these are used for Classification and Labelling purposes.

Large intra-species variability is observed in NOEC: L(E) C10 values. Effects data fromDaphnia magnawere used to develop a chronic invertebrate BLM (De Schamphelaere et al., 2004). The capacity of the BLM for predicting of copper toxicity to other invertebrate species was demonstrated from copper toxicity studies withBrachionus calyciflorus (De Schamphelaere 2006), Lampilis siliquoide (Kunz et al., 2006), Hyridella depressa (Marckish et al, 2003) and Hyalella azteca (Borgman et al.,2006).

The database contains a paper demonstrating that dietary copper exposure does not affect the capacity of the biotic ligand model to predict toxicity to D. magna

Research related to copper acclimation and deficiency (Bossuyt et al, 2004) demonstrated that after three generation of acclimation, the optimal concentration ranges (from energy reserves and number of offspring) remained constant between 1and35 µg Cu/L. Below1 µg Cu/L (a concentration often used as background copper concentration in the ecotoxicity media), copper deficiency was clearly observed.

Marine invertebrate NOECs

32 high quality NOEC: L(E) C10 were retained. for 18 different individual species belonging to different taxonomic groups:6 mollusc species (Mytilus edulis; Prototheca staminea; Crassostrea gigas, Mercenaria mercenaria, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Placopecten magellanicus),1 annelid species (Neanthes arenaceodentata)3 decapod (crustacean) species (Pandalus danae; Penaeus mergulensis;Penaeus monodon),3 copepod (crustacean) species(Eurytemora affinis; Tisbe battagliai, Tisbe furcata), 1 arthropod (crustacean) species (Artemia franciscana) 1 echinoderm species (Paracentrotus lividus),3 cnidaria species(Acropora tenuis, Goniastrea aspera, Lobophytum compactum)

Reliable species- NOEC: L(E) C10 values (µg Cu/l) are calculated for the most sensitive endpoints for 18 species. The species- specific NOEC values range from 5.9 µg Cu/L for bivalveMytilus galloprovincialisto 145 µgCu/L for the crustaceaPenaeus monodonand carried forward for the marine PNEC derivation.

The observed NOEC: L(E) C10 values are influenced by the dissolved organic carbon content of the test media. A relation between the observed NOEC and organic carbon content was established forMytillus edulis. Its applicability to other invertebrate species was demonstrated forCrassostreas gigas and Paracentrotus lividus, Dendraster exentricus and Strogolocentrus purpuratus,Mytilus galloprovincialis(Arnold et al, 2008 and 2010, Hall 2010 and Brooks 2006)