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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Already evaluated by the Competent Authorities for Biocides and Existing Substance Regulations.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Effects of Temperature on the Relative Toxicities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn to Folsomia candida (Collembola)
Author:
Sandifer, R.D & Hopkin, S.P.
Year:
1997
Bibliographic source:
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 37; 125-130

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD standard earthworm test, Guideline 207 (OECD 1984)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 11267 (Inhibition of Reproduction of Collembola by Soil Pollutants)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: see freetext
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
soil

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
IUCLID4 Test substance: other TS: Cu2+ as delivered as copper nitrate
Analytical purity: no data

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
At Tend

Test substrate

Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Substrate type: artificial soil (OECD soil).
pH 6.0 ; OM 10% ; Clay 20% ; background Cu concentration: 3.2 mg/kg dw, CEC 14.5 cmol/kg

Equilibration time: 2 days

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Folsomia candida
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
All the F. candida used in the test were members of a "Reading strain", derived from a single female isolated from a culture donated by Dr. J. Wiles of Southampton University.

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
42 d

Test conditions

Test temperature:
20°C and 25°C for 28 days exposure time
and 15°C for 42 days exposure time
pH (if soil or dung study):
6.0
Photoperiod and lighting:
constant light
Details on test conditions:
Soils were placed in plastic vending machine cups (30g soil) and 10 adult springtails were added to each cup. Yeast was used as a food source.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
5 test concentrations (between 10 and 3000 mg/kg) + 1 control (0 mg/kg)

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
200 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal) Added NOEC
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal) Added NOEC
Duration:
42 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
200 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal) ; Added NOEC
Duration:
42 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal) ; Added NOEC
Details on results:
NOEC is the highest concentration showing no significant difference with the control.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
student t-test

Any other information on results incl. tables

RS-Freetext:
SURVIVAL

25°C

Adult survival decreased with increasing copper
concentrations, however, this was only significantly reduced
at the highest dose tested (3000 mg Cu/kg).

The 28-day NOEC value was determined to be 1000 mg/kg as
calculated by both the added and total risk approach.


20°C

The number of adults surviving were greater than the control
values in the 10 and 40 mg Cu/kg dose group although the
increase was not significant. The numbers of adults
surviving in the 200, 1000 and 3000 mg Cu/kg decreased
compared to the controls, although this was not significant.

The 28-day NOEC value was determined to be =>3000 mg/kg as
calculated by both the added and total risk approach.


15°C

At 10, 40 and 200 mg Cu/kg there was an increase in the
number of adults surviving (not significant) compared to the
controls. The number of adults surviving decreased in the
two highest dose groups and this was significant (P<0.01) at
3000 mg Cu/kg.

The 42-day NOEC value was determined to be 1000 mg/kg as
calculated by both the added and total risk approach.



Juvenile Production

25°C

The results presented, indicate that at 25°C, juvenile
production of F. candida is too low for the effects of
copper on this species to be determined. A NOEC value
could, therefore, not be determined.


20°C

Juvenile production increased in the 10 and 40 mg Cu/kg
compared to the controls, however, this was not significant.
Juvenile production decreased compared to the controls in
the 200 and 1000 mg Cu/kg dose groups, although this was
only significant at 1000 mg Cu/kg (P<0.01). There were no
juveniles produced in the highest dose tested (3000 mg
Cu/kg).

A 28-day NOEC value was determined to be 200 mg Cu/kg as
calculated by both the added and total risk approach.


15°C

The number of juveniles produced decreased with increasing
copper, with the exception of 40 mg Cu/kg where more
juveniles were produced compared to the controls (not
significant). Significant decreases in the numbers of
juveniles were seen at 1000 mg Cu/kg (P<0.05) and 3000 mg
Cu/mg (P<0.01). There were no juveniles produced at the
highest dose.

The 42-day NOEC value was determined to be 200 mg Cu/kg as
calculated by both the added and total risk approach.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Good quality study. NOEC data for F. candida were used for the PNEC derivation. Reliable added NOEC values are 200 mg/kg (reproduction) and 1000 mg/kg (mortality).
Executive summary:

CL-Freetext:

The effect of copper on Folsomia candida was determined in

artificial OECD soil (70% sand, 20% clay, 10% organic

matter, pH 6.0± 0.05) at three different temperatures (15,

20 and 25°C). Mortality and reproduction were assessed

after 28 days for tests carried out at 20 and 25°C and 42

days at 15°C.

There was no reproduction at soil concentrations of 3000 mg

Cu/kg at 20 and 15°C and at both these temperatures juvenile

numbers were significantly lower than those of the controls

at 1000 mg Cu/kg. A significant reduction in adult survival

also occurred at the highest concentrations at 15°