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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

The high quality records retained for the PNEC derivation of copper under the Existing Substances Regulation (TCNES) and Biocidal Products regulations (Technical meetings) have been included in the IUCLID data-base. Tests that were considered as not-reliable for the PNEC derivations have NOT been included in the IUCLID records but have been summarized in the copper RA report.

The terrestrial effects records include 252 good quality single-specieschronic NOEC/EC10 values representing different trophic groups (micro-organisms, plants, invertebrates). These NOECS are carried forward for the terrestrial PNEC derivation in a WOE approach.

Additionally information on 8 single species studies in field contaminated soils and 5 multi-species studies (freshly spiked and field contaminated)were used for as additional WOE for the PNEC derivations of the freshwater and the sediment compartment. 

Considering the importance of bio-availabilty for reducing the intra-species variability, the data- base includes supportive information related to the development/validation of the terrestrial copper bio-availability regression models. The bio-availability regression models are used for normalizing the NOECS and deriving the terrestrial PNEC.

Considering the importance of differences in toxicity of copper to terrestrial organisms between lab spiked soils and field contaminated soils, the records information from freshly spiked soils and aged soils

NOECS for Invertebrates :

The invertebrate (including arthropods) effect records include 108 NOEC//(L(E)C10 values; hard and soft bodied organisms with different exposure routes and feeding strategies belonging to 10 different species and 6 different families (i.e. theEisenia andrei,Eisenia fetida,Lumbricus rubellusbelonging to the family of the Lumbricidae;Cognettia sphagnetorumto the family of the Enchytraedae; Isotoma viridis, Folsomia candida, Folsomia fimetariato the family of the Isotomidae; Hypoaspis aculeifer to the family of the Laelapidae, Platynothrus peltifer to the family of the Camisiidae, Plectus acuminatus to the family of the Plectidae).

Individual high quality NOEC/(L(E)C10 values from different studies range from 8.4 mg/kg forEisenia andreicocoon production to 1,460 mg/kg for Folsomia candida reproduction.

Remarkably low NOEC values are found in some tests that used Eisenia species (E. fetida and E. andrei). The lowest value is found for E. andrei reproduction (8.4 mg total Cu/kg) in a natural soil (a German standard soil often used in toxicity tests, LUFA 2.2). This value is below the limit for essentiality. Van Gestel et al, 1989 actually warn against use of cocoon production as reliable endpoint for Eisena Feitida

Important intra-species varibility in NOEC:L(E)C10 values are observed due to differences in the physico-chemistry of the soils .  For invertebrates, 2 models were developed theE. fetida model, representing soft-bodied species and the F. candida model representing hard-bodied species. These models were used for the normalization of the invertebrate NOEC data and the derivation of the PNEC

Records are available on the influence of soil ageing/leaching on the plant toxicity, especially those on reported by Ma et al, 2006 and Ma et al, 2006 b – see section adsropion/desorption are also of relevance to the terrestrial PNEC

This information was used for the PNEC derivation relevant to monitoring data.

NOECs for plants

·        The plant effect records include 67 high quality single-species chronic NOEC/EC10 values covring monocotyle and dicotyle plants including agricultural and wild species belonging to 9 different species and 5 different families : (Polygonum convolvulus – family of the Polyonaceae; Lycopersicon esculentum - family of the Solanaceae; Hordeum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pao annua– family of the Poaceae; Senecio vulgaris, Andryala integrifolia, Hypochoeris radicata– family of the Asteraceae; Lolium perenne– family of the Gramineae).The retained NOECS are carried forward for the terrestrial PNEC derivation in a WOE approach

Individual high quality NOEC/(L(E)C10 values from different studies range between ranging from 18 mg/kg for Hordeum vulgare to 698 mg/kg for Lycopersicon esculentum.

Important intra-species varibility in NOEC:L(E)C10 values are observed due to differences in the physico-chemistry of the soils .  For plants, 2 models were developed (Rooney et al, 2004 and 2006): L. esculentum model (endpoint yield) and H. vulgare root elongation model. These models were used for the normalization of the plant NOEC data and the derivation of the PNEC.

Additional records available on the influence of soil chemistry, soil ageing and soil leaching on the plant toxicity (Ginochio et al., 2006; Zhao et al., 2006).

Strandberg et al., 2006 further showed that plant community composition was significantly correlated with soil copper concentration and community composition at soil copper concentrations above 200 mg/kg differed significantly from community composition at lower copper levels.

The studies on soil attenuation, reported by Ma et al, 2006 and Ma et al, 2006 b – see section adsropion/desorption are also of relevance to the terrestrial plant PNEC

This information was used for the PNEC derivation relevant to monitoring data.

NOECS for Microbial processes:

The effect records related to microbial processes include 77 NOEC/EC10 values; 9 different endpoints representing the C- and N-cycle and measurement of microbial biomass are available (i.e. maize induced respiration, substrate induced respiration, litter decomposition, glutamic acid decomposition, N-mineralisation, denitrification, nitrification, ammonification, biomass C, biomass N).

Individual high quality NOEC/(L(E)C10 values from different studies range from 30 mg/kg (glucose respiration)) to 2,402 mg/kg (maize respiration).

Important intra-species varibility in NOEC:L(E)C10 values are observed due to differences in the physico-chemistry of the soils .  For microbial processes, 3 bio-availability models were developed : the nitrification process model, the maize respiration model (using a natural substrate) and the substrate induced respiration model (Smolder and Oorts 2004 and Oorts, 2006a). These models were used for the normalization of the NOEC data for microbial processes and the derivation of the PNEC.

Records are available on the influence of soil ageing/leaching on the plant toxicity (eg Chander and Brooks, 1993; Oorts 2006b). This information was used for the PNEC derivation relevant to monitoring data.

Toxicity to birds

One study reports an LD50 or Cu2O to Bobwhite qual. Cu2O was suspended in Tylose and administered through gavage. The administration route does not allow for the natural attenuation as reported in the environmental fate and behaviour section and the ecological relevance is therefore questioned.