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Environmental fate & pathways

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Description of key information

Stability:

Hydrolysis:On the basis of the experimental studies of the test chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, it is concluded that test chemical is not hydrolysable due to lack of fuctional group.

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water:

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2018) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test chemical in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation in water and sediments:

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2018). If released into the environment, 90.7 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 360 days (8640 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is high.

Biodegradation in water:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 3.55 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 180 days (4320 hrs). The half-life (180 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistentin water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is high whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 1620.833 days (38900  hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 6% (i.e, reported as 5.72 %), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediments:

Using BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite (2018) the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for test chemical is 352.7 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg. c which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Therefore it is concluded that test chemical  is nonbioaccumulative in food chain.

Transport and distribution:

Adsorption/desorption:

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e. Koc value of test chemical was estimated using EPI suite KOCWIN Program (v2.00) as 13670 L/kg (log Koc= 4.1359) by means of MCI method at 25 deg. C.  This log Koc value indicates that test chemical has strong sorption to soil and therefore test chemical has negligible to slow migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Stability:

Hydrolysis:

Data available for the test chemical has been reviewed to determine the half-life of hydrolysis as a function of pH fromauthoritative database (HSDB). The results of studies are mentioned below:

In first study it was mentioned that Aromatic amines are generally resistant to aqueous environmental hydrolysis therefore,test chemical is not expected to hydrolyze in water.

In another study the test chemical is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in the environment due to the lack of functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions Therefore it can be concluded that test chemical is not hydrolysable.

On the basis of the experimental studies of the test chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, it is concluded that test chemical is not hydrolysable due to lack of fuctional group.

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water:

Predicted data study and experimental studies have been done for biodegradation of test chemical and its read across chemicals in water and their results are summarized below.

In first study prediction was done by using Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2018) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test chemical in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

Nex study was experimental study in this Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 5 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance using standard dilution method under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 20°C. Sewage was used as a test inoculum. The 5 day BOD value of test chemical was determined to be 0 g/g. Thus, based on this value, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Last study was also experimental study in this 28-days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 Dwas performed to determine the ready biodegradability of the test item. The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule were added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 107 to 108 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism. The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml/l. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 73.49%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 31.32% on 7 days & 49.39 on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.52 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 2.44 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 21.31%. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was not readily biodegradable in nature.

By considering results of all the studies mentioned above it is concluded that test chemical is not readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in water and sediments:

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2018). If released into the environment, 90.7 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 360 days (8640 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is high.

Biodegradation in water:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 3.55 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 180 days (4320 hrs). The half-life (180 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistentin water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is high whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 1620.833 days (38900  hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 6% (i.e, reported as 5.72 %), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediments:

Predicted data studies and experimental study have been done for biaccumulation in aquatic organisms endpoint of test chemical and its read across chemical and their results are summarized below

The first prediction was done by using BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite (2018) the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for test chemical is 352.7 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg. c which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Therefore it is concluded that test chemical  is nonbioaccumulative in food chain.

Another prediction was done by using Bio-concentration Factor (v12.1.0.50374) module the Bio-concentration Factor at range pH 0-14  of the test chemical was estimated to be  in range 1.0- 888 dimensionless. These values indicate that the test chemicalis non-bioaccumulative in aquatic organisms as this value does not exceed 2000 criteria.

Next study was experimental study reviewed from authoritative database (HSDB) in this the Bioaccumulation test was conducted for estimating the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical.The bioconcentration factor was determined to be 500 dimesionless, from an estimated log Pow of 8.69 and a regression derived equation. This suggests that the potential for bioconcentration of test substance in aquatic organisms is low.

By considering all the studies mentioned above BCF value of test chemical is expected to be in range of 352 -888 dimensionless therefore it is concluded that test chemical is non bioaccumulative in nature.

Transport and distribution:

Adsorption/desorption:

Predicted data study and experimental studies have been reviewed for adsorption endpoint of test chemical and its read across chemical and their results are summarized below.

In first study the Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e. Koc value of test chemical was estimated using EPI suite KOCWIN Program (v2.00) as 13670 L/kg (log Koc= 4.1359) by means of MCI method at 25 deg. C.  This log Koc value indicates that test chemical has strong sorption to soil and therefore test chemical has negligible to slow migration potential to ground water.

Next study was experimental study reviewed from authoritative database in this the adsorption coefficient (Koc) value was calculated using astructure estimation method based on molecular connectivity indices. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of test substance was estimated to be 4800000 (Log Koc = 6.6812). This Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a very strong sorption to soil and sediment and therefore has negligible migration potential to ground water.

Another study was also experimental study reviewed from same source mentioned above in this the adsorption coefficient (Koc) value was calculated using astructure estimation method based on molecular connectivity indices. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of test substance was estimated to be 10000 (Log Koc = 4.0).

By considering all the studies mentioned above Log Koc value of test chemical is expected to be in range of 4.0- 6.68 dimensionless. This range log Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a strong sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have negligible to slow migration potential to ground water.