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EC number: 247-148-4
CAS number: 25637-99-4
Schafer, E. C. and Haberlein, D. (1996). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD): Closed Bottle Test. Report no.: 439E-102.Davis, J. W., Gonsior, S. J., Markham, D. A. and Marty, G. T. (2004a). Investigation of the biodegradation of [14C]Hexabromocyclododecane in sludge, sediment and soil. Report no.: 031178.Davis, J. W., Gonsior, S. J., Markham, D. A., Friedrich, U., Hunziker, R. W. and Ariano, J. M. (2006). Biodegradation and Product Identification of [14C]Hexabromocyclododecane in Wastewater Sludge and Freshwater Aquatic Sediment. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) Vol. 40, pp. 5395-5401.Gerecke, A. C., Giger, W., Hartmann, P. C., Heeb, N. V., Kohler, H. -P. E., Schmid, P., Zennegg, M. and Kohler, M. (2006). Anaerobic degradation of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge. Chemosphere (2006), Vol. 64, pp.311-317.
HBCDD is not readily biodegradable in a 28 day aerobic degradation
sewage sludge test (Schafer and Haberlein, 1996). However, inherent
biodegradation was observed in aerobic and anaerobic digester sludge
(Davis et al., 2004; 2006 (Chemosphere); 2006 (Environ. Sci. Technol.)).
Within 28 days HBCDD had decreased to approximately 10% of the starting
value while a 50% loss occurred by day 15. Abiotic degradation processes
appeared to play an important role. All three diastereomers were
degraded. Gerecke et al. (2006) reported a much shorter half-life of
0.66 days in anaerobic sewage sludge. The difference in half-lives (15
days versus 0.66 days) was attributed to the 90-fold higher HBCDD
concentration used by Davis et al. At higher concentrations for poorly
soluble substances such as HBCDD, biodegradation rates are more
dependent on mass transfer limitations than on true biodegradation
kinetics. Environmentally relevant concentrations should be used to
generate meaningful kinetic data.
Davis et al. (2006) reported three degradants: tetrabromocyclododecane,
dibromocyclododecadiene and cyclodecatriene. The authors proposed that
HBCDD was sequentially debrominated via dihaloelimination where at each
step there is the loss of two bromines from vicinal carbons with the
subsequent formation of a double bond between the adjacent carbon atoms.
The conclusion was that microorganisms naturally occurring in anaerobic
digester sludge mediate complete debromination of HBCDD.
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