Registration Dossier

Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Endpoint:
chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Method and results sufficiently described, similar to OECD-guideline 453.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Chronic inhalation toxicity and oncogenicity of methyl methacrylate in rats and hamsters.
Author:
Lomax LG, Krivanek ND, Frame SR
Year:
1997
Bibliographic source:
Food Chem. Toxicol. 35: 393-407
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1992
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1979

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 453 (Combined Chronic Toxicity / Carcinogenicity Studies)
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Fischer 344
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Inc. (Wilmington, USA)
- Housing: group-housed by sex in wire mesh cages (seven per cage)
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Purina Laboratory Chow
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): water unspecified
- Acclimation period: 19 d


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
not reported

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
other: unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on inhalation exposure:
1. Original study (Reno FE, 1979):  The test substance was administered in 6000-liter inhalation chambers with pyramidal tops and bottoms, under  dynamic conditions of 1000 liters/minute of airflow. Control animals were exposed to filtered room air in the same manner as the treated animals. 
2. Re-Evaluation of the study (Lomax LG et al., 1997):  Animals were exposed to the test substance vapor in 6000 liter inhalation chambers under dynamic conditions of 1000  liters/minute of air flow. The control animals were exposed to filtered room air in a chamber with similar air-flow characteristics.  
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The concentration of MMA in each chamber was monitored, when possible, at hourly intervals during each 6-hr exposure using an Infrared 6-Station Analyzer (Wilks-Miran, Foxboro, MA, USA).
Duration of treatment / exposure:
2 years (104 weeks)
Frequency of treatment:
6 hr/day, 5 days / week
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
25, 100 and 400 ppm (corresponding to ca. 0.10, 0.41 and 1.64 mg/L, respectively)
Basis:
nominal conc.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
25.0, 99.8 and 396.1 ppm
Basis:
analytical conc.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
70 males and 70 females were assigned to each of the four exposure groups (including the  control). 
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
Post-exposure period: Not applicable

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
1. Original study (Reno FE, 1979):
-NOTE: This study is also summarized with further evaluation of nasal passage microscopy in Lomax et al. (1997).
Methods: Groups of 70 male and 70 female (total animals = 280 males and 280 females) rats were randomly assigned to either a control or one of three test groups. The animals were group housed (7/cage) and provided food and water ad libitum, except during the exposure period. The animals were exposed to the test substance six hours a day five days per week for a total of 104 - 106 weeks. The test substance was administered in 6000-liter inhalation chambers with pyramidal tops and bottoms, under dynamic conditions of 1000 liters/minute of airflow. Control animals were exposed to filtered room air in the same manner as the treated animals. Concentrations of the test substance in each chamber were measured hourly during each exposure period using an infrared analyzer. Animals were observed daily for mortality and moribundity. Body weights and clinical observations were recorded prior to study initiation, weekly during weeks 1 though 12, biweekly from week 14 through 24, every fourth week from week 28 through 78 and biweekly from week 80 through 104. Ophthalmoscopic exams were performed on all rats prior to treatment using an indirect ophthalmoscope at weeks 13, 52 and 102.
2. Re-Evaluation of the study (Lomax LG et al., 1997): Animals: Three hundred male and 300 female rats were received from Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Inc. (Wilmington, MA, USA). Animals were maintained under quarantine for 19 days, during such time all rats were evaluated for clinical signs of disease and an ophthalmoscopic examination. Following the quarantine period, 70 males and 70 females were assigned to each of the four exposure groups (including the control). The animals were housed by sex in wire mesh cages (seven/cage). Animals were provided feed and water ad libitum, except during the exposure period. Exposure conditions: Animals were exposed to the test substance vapor in 6000 liter inhalation chambers under dynamic conditions of 1000 liters/minute of air flow. The control animals were exposed to filtered room air in a chamber with similar air-flow characteristics. Observations: All animals were observed for mortality and morbidity daily. Individual body weight data were collected at the start of the study, weekly for the first twelve weeks and biweekly to week 24, every fourth week to week 78 and biweekly until study termination (week 104). At such time, a more detailed evaluation of gross toxicity and tissue masses was performed. Ophthalmoscopic evaluations were conducted at weeks 13, 52 and 102.
Sacrifice and pathology:
1. Original study (Reno FE, 1979):
Blood samples were collected from ten males and ten females in each group at weeks 13, 52 and 102 and from ten males and ten females in the control and high-exposure group at weeks 26 and 78 for hematological evaluation via segmental amputation of the tail. The following parameters were examined: hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, erythrocyte morphology, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. In addition, coagulation and prothrombin times were determined from all blood samples taken at 13, 52 and 104 weeks and from the samples collected from the control and high-exposure groups at week 78. Femoral bone samples were collected from all sacrificed animals at weeks 13 and 52 and from 10 animals/sex/group at termination. The number of myeloid and erythroid cells and the myeloid/erythroid ratios were determined. Blood samples were collected for clinical chemistry evaluations from the abdominal aorta of all animals sacrificed at weeks 13 and 51 and from ten males and ten females per group at study termination. The following parameters were evaluated: fasting glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, total albumin, albumin/globulin ratio. In addition, total cholesterol and triglycerides were also determined from blood samples taken from all animals sacrificed at week 52 and from ten animals/sex/group at week 104. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 10 animals/sex/group at weeks 13, 52 and 104 by individually housing the rats overnight in stainless steel cages. The following parameters were evaluated: appearance, pH, ketones, total protein, specific gravity, bilirubin, glucose and occult blood. Necropsy: Ten rats/sex/group were sacrificed by exsanguination after 13 and 52 weeks of exposure. Animals found moribund during the course of the study were sacrificed at the time of the observation. The remaining animals were sacrificed after 102-104 weeks of exposure to the test substance. A gross necropsy was performed on all animals that were sacrificed and most of the animals that died during the study. Brain, kidneys, lungs, spleen, thyroids, adrenals and testes/ovaries from each animal were weighed and the organ to body weight ratio was calculated. The following tissues were collected and preserved in formalin or Bouin's solution: brain, pituitary, thoracic spinal chord, esophagus, salivary glands, thyroids, lungs, thymus, heart, spleen, kidneys, adrenals, stomach, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, colon, skin, mesenteric lymph nodes, urinary bladder, ovaries, uterus, mammary gland costochondral junction, liver, sciatic nerve, skeletal muscle, pancreas, nasal turbinates, unusual lesions, eyes and the testes with epididymides. Intraperitoneal body fat was recorded without exception at week 52 and by exception at all subsequent intervals. Histopathology was performed on the brain, spinal cord, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, heart, lung, spleen, liver kidney, and ovaries/testes from 10/animals/sex in the low- and mid-exposure groups; and the nasal turbinates of all low- and mid-level animals. Also, the adrenals, ovaries/testes, heart (with coronary vessels), kidneys, liver, lungs, nasal turbinates, pituitary and thyroid were evaluated from 10 animals/sex/group from the control and high-exposure groups sacrificed at weeks 13 and 52.

2. Re-Evaluation of the study (Lomax LG et al., 1997):
Blood samples were collected from 10 males and 10 females per dose group at weeks 13, 52 and 104 and 10 males and 10 females in the control and the high-dose group at weeks 26 and 78. The following hematological parameters were evaluated at each sampling interval: hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells counts, erythrocyte counts, total white blood cell counts, erythrocyte morphology and prothrombin time. Bone marrow samples were collected from the femurs of all rats killed at week 13 and 52 and from 10 males and 10 females from each group at study termination. Blood also was obtained from the abdominal aorta of all rats killed at week 13, 52 and study termination. The following clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated: glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, total albumin, total cholesterol (except for week 13) and triglycerides (except for week 13). Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 10 animals per sex per group at weeks 13, 52 and 104. The following parameters were evaluated: appearance, pH, specific gravity, glucose, ketones, total protein, bilirubin, and occult blood. Necropsy: Ten rats per sex per group were sacrificed after 13 and 52 weeks of exposure. The remaining animals were sacrificed after 104 - 106 weeks of exposure. Necropsies were performed on all decedents. The brain, kidneys, lungs spleen, adrenal and thyroid glands and the testis or ovaries were weighed and the organ to body weight ratios were calculated. The following tissues were preserved in buffered 10% formalin: brain, pituitary, spinal cord, esophagus, salivary glands, thyroid glands with parathyroid, lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, thymus, heart, aorta, larynx, spleen, kidneys, adrenals, stomach, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, colon, skin, mesenteric lymph nodes, urinary bladder, uterus, mammary gland, prostate, seminal vesicles, costochondral junction, liver, sciatic nerve, skeletal muscle, pancreas, nasal cavity and gross lesions. The eyes from all rats and the testes with epididymides were preserved in Bouin's fixative. Microscopic evaluations were made using the tissue listed above in the control and the high-dose groups at study termination. The brain, spinal cord, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and ovaries/testes from 10 animals per sex in the low- and mid-dose groups and the nasal cavities from all animals in the low- and mid-dose groups were evaluated microscopically. Sections from the adrenals, testes or ovaries, heart, kidneys, pituitary, thyroids, liver, nasal cavities and lungs of control and high-dose animals were examined microscopically after the week 13 and 52 interim sacrifices. Following the issuance of the original report, tissue blocks of the nasal cavities from the animals killed at the terminal sacrifice and the control and high-dose group at week 13, were obtained and a composite cross-sectional map of representative nasal cavity lesions with the approximate distribution was prepared for the mid- and high-dose groups.
Statistics:
1. Original study (Reno FE, 1979): Data Analysis: Pairwise comparisons of the mean body weights from weeks 12, 24, 36, 48, 52, 60, 72, 78, 90 and 104 were conducted using the F test for equality of two variances and Student's t-test. Clinical laboratory data (except urinalysis and leukocyte differentials), terminal body weights and absolute and relative organ weights (organ/body weight) of all animals sacrificed at weeks 13, 52 and term were subjected to a preliminary test for equality of variance followed by one-way analysis using Bartlett's test for homogeneity and Snedecor and Cochran, respectively. When statistical significances were observed, an additional set of analyses was conducted using Scheffe's method for judging all contrast in analysis of variance.
2. Re-Evaluation of the study (Lomax LG et al., 1997): Data analysis: Pair-wise comparisons of the mean body weights were performed. Clinical laboratory data, with the exception of urinalysis and leukocyte differentials, terminal body weights and absolute and relative organ weights of all animals killed at weeks 13 and 52 and at study termination were subjected to a preliminary test for the equality of variance. To evaluate tumor incidence, Fisher's one-sided exact test was conducted between the control and high-dose groups. For all analyses, statistical significance was determined by a p value < 0.05.

Results and discussion

Effect levels

open allclose all
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Remarks:
systemic (gross pathology histopathology, clinical effects)
Effect level:
ca. 1 640 mg/m³ air
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: corresponding to 400 ppm
Dose descriptor:
LOAEC
Remarks:
local effects (Histopathology, olfactory epithelium)
Effect level:
ca. 416 mg/m³ air
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: nasal lesions; corresponding to 100 ppm
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Remarks:
local effects (Histopathology, olfactory epithelium)
Effect level:
ca. 104 mg/m³ air
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: corresponding to 25 ppm

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

1. Original study (Reno FE, 1979):

-----------------------------------

The mean analytical concentration was evaluated. The overall mean concentrations of MMA vapour were 25.0, 99.8 and 396.1 ppm for the 25, 100 and 400 ppm exposure groups, respectively.

 

Mortality: Mortality rates were relatively low through week 78. High mortality was observed through week 104. The author indicates that the increase in mortality was probably due to aging, not related to test substance exposure. The mortality rates for treated groups were comparable to the control group. A summary of the mortality rates (%) is provided below.

 

 

Dose group (ppm)

Week 0-13

Week 0-52

Week 0-104

MALES

 

 

 

Negative Control (0)

0

0

16

25

0

1.7

20

100

0

1.7

16

400

0

0

20

FEMALES

 

 

 

Negative Control (0)

0

0

24

25

0

3.3

36

100

1.4

3.3

26

400

0

5.0

30

 

Clinical signs

No signs of test substance-related toxicity were observed in any of the treated animals throughout the 104-week exposure period. The most frequent observations included cloudy eye(s) and bloody crust around one or both eyes. The author reported that these findings occurred with approximately the same frequencies in treated and control groups.

Body weight

Male body weights were significantly higher in the mid-level exposure group at week 24, lower weights in the low-level exposure group at week 104, and lower weights of the high-level exposure group at weeks 28 and 78. In the females, the low-level exposure groups showed a significant decrease in body weight at weeks 60, 72 and 78 and an increase at weeks 12 and 24. The females in the mid-level exposure group showed a significant decrease at weeks 52, 60 and 78 and in the high-level exposure group at weeks 28, 36, 52, 60, 72, 78 and 90. The author concluded, the body weight reduction observed in the females exposed to ca. 1.64 mg/L (400 ppm) MMA was test substance-related.

 

Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmoscopic observations were noted at weeks 13, 52 and 102. The author reports that no consistent ocular abnormalities were noted at weeks 13 and 52. Ocular findings noted at week 102 included cataracts, pale coloration, corneal cloudiness and red discharge. The cataract findings were considered to be caused by aging.

Haematology/ Clinical chemistry

Evaluation of the haematology and clinical chemistry data did not reveal any remarkable trends. Statistical analyses showed numerous significant differences between the treated and the control groups; however, these differences were considered sporadic and were considered by the author a reflection of sampling and biological variability. A transitory appearance of occult blood was observed in all groups at week 52. All remaining intervals were generally unremarkable.

 

Organ weights

A statistically significant increase in absolute and relative organ weights of the females exposed to ca. 1.64 mg/L (400 ppm) MMA was observed in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and ovaries at week 13. A statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative thyroid and adrenal weights were observed in both males and females in the high-level exposure group at week 52. Absolute thyroid and adrenal weights were significantly higher in the males exposed to ca. 0.41 mg/L (100 ppm), MMA for 52 weeks. Other significant differences were noted at weeks 52 and 104; however, the author concluded that no consistent dose-related pattern was established.

 

Gross pathology

Findings noted in animals that were sacrificed at weeks 13 and 52 were mainly discolorations of the lung and liver. None of the findings were considered treatment-related. Tissue mass findings for animals sacrificed at week 104 were typical for the age and the species of rats. No treatment-related differences with respect to the frequency were observed.

 

Histopathology 

Week 13

No treatment-related histopathological findings were noted in the rats exposed to ca. 1.64 mg/L (400 ppm) MMA for 13 weeks. Findings were consistent among groups and were typical for rats of this age and strain.

Week 52

No treatment-related histopathological findings were noted in the rats exposed to ca. 1.64 mg/L (400 ppm) MMA for 13 weeks. Findings were consistent among groups and were typical for rats of this age and strain.

Week 104

Treatment-related histopathological findings were limited to a very slight increase in the lesions of mild rhinitis observed in the mucosal lining of the nasal turbinates. A summary of the lesions is provided below.

 

Incidence of Lesions in Nasal Mucosa

 

 

Males

 

 

 

Females

 

 

 

Group No.*

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

No. of Nasal Turbinates Examined

48

49

49

48

44

48

45

46

Serous Exudate

3

11

12

16

15

8

17

23

Purulent Exudate

2

6

4

8

2

9

6

6

Pleocellular Infiltrate

1

4

6

19

3

14

9

11

Distended Submucosal Glands

5

21

21

12

3

14

12

9

Squamous Metaplasia (focal)

2

3

1

5

0

5

1

2

Inflammatory Polyp

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

*Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to ca. 0, 0.10, 0.41 and 1.64 mg/L (0, 25, 100 and 400 ppm) MMA, respectively.

 

No clear treatment-related effect could be established. Although lesions of mild rhinitis occurred more often in treated rats than control rats, it could not be determined if the rhinitis was a result of direct chemical insult to the turbinate area or whether the presence of MMA vapors predisposed the rats to an increase in spontaneous disease. [NOTE - Subsequent evaluation of the nasal lesions (Lomax et al., 1997) indicated that there were exposure related nasal lesions at ca. 0.10 and 0.41 mg/L (100 and 400 ppm)]. Neoplasms and spontaneous disease lesions were observed with comparable frequency in control and treated rats. Chronic nephritis was observed in most rats; however, it was more pronounced in males.

 

2. Re-Evaluation of the study (Lomax LG et al. (1997)):

-------------------------------------------------------

 

The mean analytical concentrations of the test substance in the exposure chambers were 25.0, 99.8 and 396.1 ppm less than 10% per dose level.

 

Mortality rates for the treated animals were similar to those of the controls. No signs of treatment-related toxicity were observed. At the 13, 52 and 104-week observation intervals, cloudy eyes and bloody crusts around one or both eyes were noted in all of the treatment groups, as well as the control animals. Body weights for males were lower than the control at various intervals but overall were considered equivalent over the 104-week period. Mean body weights for females were lower than the controls at ca. 1.64 mg/L (400 ppm) after week 52. Haematology, clinical chemistry and urinalyses did not indicate any treatment-related effects in any of the parameters evaluated.

 

Gross necropsy of the rats sacrificed at weeks 13 and 52 did not show any treatment-related effects.

 

The following information was obtained from the reevaluation of the nasal tissues from this study originally conducted by Reno et al.(1979) - see also summary for this study in this Dossier. Microscopic evaluation of the nasal cavity sections obtained from the animals exposed to the test substance for 13 weeks showed degeneration of the neuroepithelial cell lining of the dorsal meatus in conjunction with atrophy of Bowman's glands and focal basal cell hyperplasia. Lesions were identified on the tips of the maxilloturbinates and nasoturbinates and focally along the nasal septum in the more anterior regions of the nose. These lesions were characterized by chronic active inflammation, respiratory epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. No microscopic findings were identified in the ocular tissue or the lungs or other tissues. Blocks of the nasal cavities of animals from the 52-week sacrifice were unable to be located and, therefore, were not evaluated. No new findings were identified in the tissues that were available for animals exposed to the test substance for 52 weeks. Spontaneous disease lesions included early respiratory disease in both the control animals and the animals exposed to 400 ppm of the test substance. Also focal areas of pneumonitis were observed in two females in the control group.

Gross necropsy after two years of exposure to the test substance showed no treatment-related effects. The nasal cavity was the target organ for chronic toxicity. Rats exposed to the 100 and 400 ppm dose group had dose-dependent lesions in the anterior portions of the nasal cavity. The olfactory epithelium lining the dorsal meatus in the anterior region of the nasal cavity was affected by exposure to higher concentrations of the test substance. The microscopic changes consisted of degeneration of the olfactory epithelium and underlying Bowman's glands, hyperplasia of basal cells, replacement of olfactory epithelium by ciliated epithelium and inflammation of

the mucosa and/or submucosa. Lesions tended to be bilateral in distribution. The olfactory lesions in rats exposed to 100 ppm were localized in the more posterior (level 3) portion of the dorsal meatus, while those in animals exposed to ca. 1.64 mg/L (400 ppm) were found in levels 2 and 3. Hyperplasia of glands in the lamina propria and/or goblet cells and inflammation of the mucosa/lamina propria were observed in the respiratory epithelium in the high exposure group animals. No effects were seen in nasal epithelium of rats exposed to ca. 0.10 mg/L (25 ppm) MMA. No statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency of tumours between the rats exposed to ca. 1.64 mg/L (400 ppm) of the test substance and that of the controls. In female rats exposed to ca. 1.64 mg/L (400 ppm) of the test substance, a statistically significant decrease in pituitary adenoma/carcinomas and mammary gland fibroadenomas was recorded. In male rats, a decreased incidence of pheochromocytoma was observed.

Applicant's summary and conclusion