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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1998
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Version / remarks:
1997
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Sampling method: The concentration of the test substance in the test solution was measured at the beginning and the end of the exposure. No further details.
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan)
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Hardness:
55 - 80 mg/L(as CaCO3)
Test temperature:
19.6 - 20.1 ºC
pH:
7.9 - 8.2
Dissolved oxygen:
6.6 - 8.5 mg/L
Conductivity:
171 mS/cm
Nominal and measured concentrations:
- Nominal concentrations: 0 (control), 10, 22, 46, 100 mg/L (geometric ratio 2.2)
- Measured concentrations: 0, 10, 23, 49, 100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass beaker, 100 ml, volume 80 mL per vessel
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 3 times per week
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Dechlorinated tap water
- Total organic carbon: COD 0.2 mg/L.
- Hardness 55.6 mg/L (as CaCO3)
- Alkalinity: 37.5 mg/L
- pH: 7.7
- Sodium: 14.9 mg/L
- Potassium: 3.76 mg/L
- Conductivity: 171 mS/cm

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: not specified
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light - 8 hours dark

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : mobility, reproduction

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2.2
Reference substance (positive control):
not required
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (TWA)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
immobilisation
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
79 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (TWA)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
49 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (TWA)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (TWA)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Details on results:
- Concentrations: Measured concentrations were adopted because percentage of those concentrations for nominal concentrations exceeded ± 20 %.
- No parent daphnids died during the test, neither in the control nor in the test concentrations.
- Time (days) of the First Brood Production: Mean;Control (7 days), 10 mg/L (7 days), 23 mg/L (7 days), 49 mg/L (7 days) and 100 mg/L (7 days).
- Mean Cumulative Number of Offsprings Produced per Adult: 21days; Control (112.9), 10 mg/L (140.6), 23 mg/L (140.8), 49 mg/L (122.5) and 100 mg/L (27.9)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
- Data Analysis: for LC50; Not described, Dunnett test for NOEC
- Method of Calculating Mean Measured Concentrations (i.e. arithmetic mean, geometric mean, etc.): Time-weighted mean
- NOEC was determined based on the cumulative number of juveniles produced per adult alive for 21 days.

Table 1. Nominal and measured concentrations

Nominal

Concentration

[mg/L]

Measured concentration [mg/L]

(% nominal)

Time-weighted mean for 21 days

[mg/L] (% nominal)

2 day new

5 day old

9 day new

12 day old

16 day new

19 day old

Control

< 0.07

< 0.07

< 0.07

< 0.07

< 0.07

< 0.07

--

10

11(110)

9.8(98)

8.0(80)

12(120)

11(110)

9.5(95)

10(100)

22

26(120)

22(100)

19(86)

23(100)

26(120)

21(95)

23(100)

46

61(130)

48(100)

40(87)

52(110)

50(110)

43(93)

49(110)

100

120(120)

100(100)

83(83)

100(100)

110(120)

95(95)

100(100)

 

Table 2. Effect Data (reproduction):

Concentration

[mg/L]

Cumulative number of deaths, parental daphnids [days]

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Control

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

22

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

46

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test substance is not chronically toxic to invertebrates. The NOEC for reproduction is 49 mg/L.
Executive summary:

A Daphnia magna Reproduction Test was performed with the test item according to OECD 202, under GLP conditions. 10 daphnids per concentration (10 vessels with 1 animal each) were exposed to 0 (control), 22, 46, or 100 mg/L (nominal concentrations) of test item for 21 days at 20 ± 1 ºC, under semi-static conditions (renewal rate 3 times per week). The test item concentration was measured by GC-MS and, since the measured concentrations were outside the range ± 20 % of the nominal, all results were given as measured values. The 21d-LC50 of the test item in daphnia was determined to be >100 mg/L, based on parent mortality; the 21d-EC50 was 79 mg/L, based on reproduction; the NOEC was 49 mg/L and the LOEC 100 mg/L (measured concentrations).

Description of key information

Key study. Method according to OECD 202, GLP study. The 21d-LC50 of the test item in daphnia was determined to be >100 mg/L, based on parent mortality; the 21d-EC50 was 79 mg/L, based on reproduction; the NOEC was 49 mg/L and the LOEC 100 mg/L (measured concentrations).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
49 mg/L

Additional information