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EC number: 294-409-3
CAS number: 91722-09-7
Substance formed during processing of liquid steel or during production of iron castings. Consists primarily of fused silicates and trace elements as oxides as well as trace of alloying elements.
ABS: Hordeum vulgare (barley) ISO 11269-2 and NF X 31201: 14 d-NOEC 510 g/kg (germination), 640 g/kg (growth). Lactuca sativa (lettuce): 410 g/kg (both germination and growth)Slags are effiecient fertilizers for plantsThe chronic NOEC is estimated to be 100 g/kg soil for weathered slags.
guideline studies on acute toxicity
To evaluate the possible ecotoxicity
of slags under guideline conditions in the laboratory, slags,
ferrous metal, blast furnace (air cooled – ABS) were
a single application according
to the OECD Guideline 208 in
regard to seedling emergence and early stages of growth
of the three terrestrial plants,
wheat (Triticum aestivum), mustard (Sinapis alba), and cress (Lepidium
sativum). The LC50of emergence refers to the
appearance of the seedlings above the soil surface, being the
concentration of slags at which the emergence rate is 50 % of that of
the controls. The EC50of growth is determined from the
shoot fresh weight and is the concentration of slags at which the
decrease in growth is 50 % of that of the control. The slags were
tested up to a maximum concentration of 10000 mg/kg soil dw which
exceeds the maximum of concentration given by the test guideline OECD
208 by a factor 10.
inhibitory effect was exerted by slags on growth (shoot fresh weight),
survival, and emergence of any of the three species wheat (Triticum
aestivum), mustard (Sinapis alba), and cress (Lepidium sativum) up to
the maximum concentration of 10000 mg/kg dw soil. All 21d-EC10 are
> 10000 mg/kg soil dw (Fresenius 2010).
Extended laboratory study
The effect of steelmaking slags (SMS)
added to oxisol soil was evaluated for Sorghum spec. In extended
laboratory experiments sorghum plants were grown for 36 days in pots
in oxisol with SMS added up to 21.2 t/ha. The pH varied between 4.8
(controls) and 7.4 (SMS, 21.2 t/ha, no pH controls done). The dry
matter production and the metal content in plants were plotted against
each other and a correlation analysis was performed.
The dry matter production of sorghum was
highest when the concentration of SMS added to oxisol was
approximately 9.6 t/ha. The study clearly shows that SMS functions as
a liming agent/fertilizer for sorghum in sightly acidic oxisol (Costa
et al. 1992).
studies on chronic toxicity
Field studies in Germany and Austria
of up to 50 years duration demonstrated improved agricultural yield by
application of slags, ferrous metal, blast furnace (ABS/GBS), slags,
steelmaking, converter (BOS), and slags, steelmaking (ladle slags,
SMS) as fertilizers, in comparison to liming with limestone (CaCO3)
or burnt lime (CaO).
The application of ABS/GBS and SMS
in amounts of annual lime loss did not lead to significant increases
of the Cr or V content in the soils. Although the long-term use of BOS
caused an slight accumulation of aqua regia extractable Cr and V in
the soils, all slag applications led to improved soil fertility also
in comparison to liming with burnt lime or limestone, and did not
negatively affect the microbiological activities in soils. There is no
risk of trace element accumulation in soils or plants (Rex 2005).
The mean SO42-concentration
in soil and the total sulfur content of leaves was not influenced by
the sulfur content of the slag material used in road construction.
There were no relevant differences in the content of several trace
elements or in the viability of trees planted near the road test
Slag as a road construction material
of existing roads had no adversive effect on the viability of trees
planted near these roads. The viability of trees in the vicinity of
slag roads was much better than in the vicinity of roads from natural
rock material, presumably due to the fertilizing and pH buffering
effect of ferrous slags (FEhS 1991).
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