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Environmental fate & pathways

Additional information on environmental fate and behaviour

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Endpoint:
additional information on environmental fate and behaviour
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1998
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study well documented. Study meets generally accepted scientific principles. Study acceptable for assessment
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1998

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Assessment done by Larm of the Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Oekologie (Lower Saxonian State Agency for Ecology). Assessment of environmental properties by comparison of leachate concentrations of with concentration limit values of the TVO (Trinkwasser-Verodnung = German Federal Drinking Water Regulation) and the Pruefwert (test value) of LAWA (= Bund/Laender-Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser = German Federal and Federal States Working Group on Water).
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of study / information:
Environmental assessment

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Analytical information (elemental and mineralogical data) is presented in Chapter 1.4 of the IUCLID

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1. Analytical information on slags (analytical information is derived from elemental analysis according to DIN 52100 (part 2, 6.1) and is given in the oxides notation. The use of the oxides notation does not indicte that the slag is a mixture of these oxides. Therefore neither CAS No. nor EG No. are specified)

 

ABS/GBS

BOS

EAF

 % w/w

Mean 

Maximum 

Mean 

Maximum 

Mean 

Maximum 

SiO2

36.7 

40

18

14

13

18.5

Al2O3

10.2 

12

2.0

5.0

6

9.5

CaO

39.5

43

49

53

26

36

CaO frei 

n.d.

 n.d.

6

9.5

0.4

0.8

MgO

9.4

16

2.5

6.0

5

7.5

Na2O

0.4

0.8

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

K2O

0.5

0.9

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

TiO2

1.1

2.5

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

P2O5

n.d.

 n.d.

1.5

2.7

0.6

1.0

MnO2

0.6 

1.3

4.2

6.0

6.1

9.8

Feges.

0.4

0.7

18

22

26

30

Sges.

1.5

1.9

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.4

Cr2O3

n.d.

n.d.

0.3

0.5

2

3.0

Trace elements (mg/kg)

As

<1

<1

<1

<1

3

13

Cd

<1

<1

<1

<1

5

30

Cr

20

40

s.o.

s.o

s.o

s.o

Co

4

8

7

10

6

10

Cu

5

10

30

50

140

300

Hg

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

Mo

<2

<2

20

80

90

200

Ni

<2

<2

4

9

20

70

Pb

5

<21

6

8

20

90

Se

2

2

<1

<1

<1

<1

Tl

<1

<1

<1

2

1

1

V

30

50

300

600

800

2500

Zn

<100

<100

60

150

300

900

Anions (mg/kg) 

F

600

<900

2200

3800

800

1800

CNges

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

<10

n.d.

<10

Leachate concentrations reported in the assessment by Larm

 Analytical information on slag leachates (DIN 38 414. S4. Analytical methods FGSV-Papier 28/1)

 

ABS

Grain size 8 -11 mm 

GBS
Grain size 0 - 5 mm 

BOS
Grain size 8 -11 mm 

EAF
Grain size 8 -11 mm 

 

Mean 

Maximum 

Mean 

Max.-wert 

Mean 

Maximum 

Mean 

Maximum 

pH

11

11.4

11

11.5

12.1

12.7

11.6

12.3

ConductivitymS/m 

82

126

46

100

269

765

77

198

CODmg/l 

78

182

<20

<20

2.4

7

5

20

 

Dimension mg/L:

Al

1.3

2.9

0.07

1.1

1.7

7.0

9.5

40

As

0.002 

0.005

0.001

0.003

<0.001

<0.001

0.001

0.003

Cd

<0.0001 

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

Co

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

Cr

0.001 

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.04

0.026

 0.08

Cr6+

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.01

0.02

0.016

0.04

Cu

<0.001

<0.001 

<0.001 

<0.001 

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.002

Hg

<0.0005

<0.0005

<0.0005

<0.0005

0.0006

0.001

<0.0005

0.0005

Mo

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.03

Ni

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

<0.002

0.002

Pb

<0.001

0.001

<0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.002

0.006

Se

0.006

0.009

0.0009

0.002

0.0005

0.0005

0.0005

0.002

Tl

<0.0005 

<0.0005

<0.0005

<0.0005

<0.0005

<0.0005

<0.0005

<0.0005

V

0.01

0.02

0.005

0.01

0.02

0.05

0.06

0.38

Zn

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

Anions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F

0.5

1.0

<0.2

<0.2

2.0

8

0.5

1.5

Cl

5

10

<5

<5

5

20

1

7

SO42-

288

598

34

106

22

45

15

18

CN total

 <0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.01

0.02

<0.01

0.01

CN soluble

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

Results of leachate assessment of Larm (Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Oekologie = Lower Saxonian State Agency for Ecology)

LAWA = Bund/Laender-Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (German Federal and Federal States Working Group on Water)

TVO = Trinkwasserverordnung (German Federal Regulation on Drinking Water)

 

Element detected only in levels similar to geologic background

Concentration in leachate exceeds limit values of TVO

Concentration in leachate exceeds limit value of LAWA

continuous monitoring nessessary

 Al

yes; <background

no

no limit value available

no

As

yes

no

no

no

Cd

yes (exceeded only in EAF)

no

no

no

Co

yes; <background

no

no

no

Cr

yes (exceeded significantly in EAF)

no; exceptionally exceeded

no; exceptionally exceeded

yes, if marketed 

Cu

yes

no

no

no

Hg

yes

no 

no 

no

Mn

yes for ABS and GBS (exceeded significantly in BOS and EAF)

 

no limit value available

no

Mo

Not consistantly below background 

 

no

no

Ni

yes

no

no

no

Pb

yes (exceeded by some EAF)

no 

no

no

Se

yes

 

no

no

Tl

yes

 

no 

 

V

no, exceeding

 

yes; significantly exceeding

yes

Zn

no(exceeded by some EAF)

no

no

no

CN-

 

no

no

no

SO42-

 

yes

 

yes

F-

 

yes (occasionally)

yes (occasionally)

yes

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The elemental composition of slags, the type of chemical incorporation of these elements into the mineral matrix of the slag as well as its leaching properties are important for the assessment of the environmental long-term behaviour of slags. Monitoring is only necessary in regard to Cr (if slag is marketed) and V, as well as SO4 and F.
Executive summary:

The mineralogical and elemental composition of slag was determined for ABS/GBS (and 2 similar slags, BOS and EAF). The elemental composition of the solid material did not correlate with the leachates obtained by the S4 leaching method which had the highest reproducibility. The S4 leaching method yielded comparable results on leaching of grain sizes 8 -11 mm and 0 -32 mm. The following parameters of the leachates were assessed by comparison to standards for environmental and human health protection (limit values of TVO (German Federal Drinking Water Regulation) and LAWA Pruefwerte (test values) as far as available): pH, conductivity, COD, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, V, Zn, CN, SO4, F. Only 2 elements have to be continuously monitored: Cr only in case of marketing (use) of the slag, and V. SO4 is to be monitored because fresh ABS exceeds the German "Zuordnungswerte" (TR Bauschutt (Technical guidance for demolishion rubble) limit values for general use), F because of limits for drinking water.