Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
3.5 mg/kg bw/day
Additional information

Multi-generation reproduction toxicity studies are compiled in Table 7.8.1

A GLP two generation reproduction toxicity study to US EPA 83-4, which complies with OECD 416, by Ridgeway (1989) [reference 7.8.1.001, EZPTF 6082 -001],investigated the administration of Sodium Pyrithione to the rat over 2 generations, that included an eleven week pre-mating exposure.

 

Effects on fertility caused by Sodium Omadine were only observed in the F0 generation’s high dose group. Reductions in both the numbers of animals mating and fertile animals were observed and, additionally, there was an increase in the time taken to mate. However, these effects took place only at doses toxic to parental animals.

Groups of twenty-five male and twenty-five female rats were dosed orally via gavage at 0.5, 1.5 or 3.5 mg/kg daily for F0 adults and F1 pups and F1 adults, and F2 pups. Clinical conditions, body weight, fertility and mating performance and histopathological change were recorded for parental animals. Clinical conditions, litter size and growth, and development were recorded for the F1 and F2 pups through weaning.  At 3.5 mg/kg/day, a number of females showed hind-limb paralysis in the F0 generation; this was not seen in F1 animals. Body weight gain was statistically significantly decreased in both males and females at 3.5 mg/kg/day in the F0 generation and in females at this dose in the F1 generation. Fertility was decreased at 3.5 mg/kg/day in the F0 generation, with the number of rats successfully mating and the number of rats pregnant decreased when compared to controls. There was no effect on gestational length, the number of pups born or pup bodyweight seen. No effects on fertility were seen in the F1 generation. There was no increase in the incidence of fetal malformations in either generation. On postmortem examination, there was an increase in the incidence of hind-limb muscle atrophy at 3.5 mg/kg/day in females in both generations. On histopathological examination, there was an increase in atrophy of skeletal muscles at 3.5 mg/kg/day in the F0 generation and from 1.5 mg/kg/day in the F1 generation. 

 

The NOAEL in rats with respect to fertility and developmental toxicity was considered to be > 3.5 mg/kg/day, although parental toxicity was considered to be responsible for impaired mating performance. 

 

The NOEL for other effects such as hindlimb weakness, was 0.5 mg/kg/day.

 

A GLP two generation reproduction toxicity study to US EPA OPPTTS 870.3800, which complies with OECD 416, by Cicalese et al (2003) [reference 7.8.1.002, EZPTF 6082-002],investigated the administration of Sodium Pyrithione to the rat.

 

Various toxic signs, such as lower body weight, lower food consumption, emaciation in females, lower pup weight, later descending of testis, later prepuzial separation were observed in the high dose group (2.8 mg as /kg bw) and in a few cases also in the mid dose group (1.4 mg as /kg bw).

 

Effects on fertility caused by Sodium Omadine were only observed in the F0 generation’s high dose group. Reductions in both the numbers of animals mating and fertile animals were observed and, additionally, there was an increase in the time taken to mate. However, these effects took place only at doses toxic to parental animals.

The NOAEL in rats with respect to reproductive parameters was considered to be 0.7 mg/kg/day. There was no observed effects on sperm count and/or motility and there was no macro or microscopic findings. Thus the slight decrease in mating and fertility observed in the P1is believed to be due to the significant toxicity observed in both the males and females at 2.8 mg/kg/day. In addition, the F1pups in the 2.8 mg/kg/day treatment group were reported to have a slight increase in the prepuzial separation (preputial separation in English) is also believed to be due to the significant maternal and fetal toxicity present at this dose.

 

The clear NOAEL for P, F0, and F2is 0.7 mg/kg/day based on maternal toxicity and fetotoxicity being observed at 1.4 mg/kg/day. 

Table 7.8.1     Summary of reprotoxicity

Route of

exposure

 

Test type

Method

Guideline

 

Species

Strain

Sex

no/group

Doses1

Test

material

 

Critical

effect

 

NO(A)EL1

Parental

NO(A)EL1

F1

 

NO(A)EL

F2

 

Reference

 

Oral

2-generation Reproduction Rat Toxicity study,

US EPA 83-4, which complies with OECD 416.

GLP

Crl:CD (SD) RR,

25 per sex per dose

0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5 mg/kg/day,

 

Test material: Sodium Omadine, 40% Aqueous solution.

In high dose group, parents reduction in bodyweight gain and atrophy of hind-limb muscles with related hind-limb paralysis was detected, as well as adverse effects on F0 generation fertility and mating performance. There was evidence of a slight retardation of development during lactation in the offspring. In the mid dose group, atrophy of the hind-limb muscles was observed in three females in the F1 generation.

1.5

Males: 1.5 Females 0.5

1.5

7.8.1.001

 

EZPTF 6082-001

 

Ridgeway P and Wood CM (1989)

(unpublished)

 

 

Oral (gavage)

EPA OPPTS 870.3800 of 1998 and OECD 416 of 1983.

GLP

Rat

 

Hsd: Sprague Dawley SD

0, 0.7, 1.4 , and 2.8 mg as /kg bw

 

Natrium Pyrion 40.8 % LSG.

Various toxic signs, such as lower body weight, lower food consumption, emaciation in females, lower pup weight, later descending of testis, later prepuzial separation were observed in the high dose group (2.8 mg as /kg bw) and in a few cases also in the mid dose group (1.4 mg as /kg bw).

1.4 mg/kg bw/ day (male)

 

0.7 mg/kg bw/day (female)

1.4 mg/kg bw/ day (male)

 

0.7 mg/kg bw/day (female)

2.8 mg/kg/day

 

Based on litters, fetal wt and number etc.

7.8.1.002

 

EZPTF 6082-002

 

Cicalese R, Argentino-Storino A (2003).(unpublished)

 

The information contained within this robust summary document comes from studies which are in the ownership of Arch Chemicals Inc. and which are protected in several regions globally. This information may not be used for any purpose other than in support of the Chemical safety Report submitted by Arch Chemicals Inc. under RegulationEC 1907/2006.

Effects on developmental toxicity

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
0.75 mg/kg bw/day
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
3 mg/kg bw/day
Additional information

Key studies are summarised in Table 7.8.2

 

A GLP developmental toxicity study to US OPPTS 870.3700, which Complies with OECD 414. by Cicalese & Brightwell (2001), [reference 7.8.2.001, EZPTF 6081-004], investigated the administration of Sodium Pyrithione to the Rat.

 

The test substance was administered by gavage to 3 dosed and 1 control group of 24 mated females each.

 

Maternal toxicity (body weight development, food consumption, behavioural changes) was detected at the high dose of 4 mg test substance / kg body weight. Foetal toxicity (lower foetal weight and incompletely ossifications) was detected at the high dose of 4 mg test substance / kg body weight and is considered to be related to maternal toxicity.

 

No evidence of a teratogenic effect of the test substance was obtained.

 

The NOAEL for this study is 2.0 mg/kg/day (for maternal toxicity) and 2.0 mg/kg/day for malformations and developmental variations. 

 

Two developmental toxicity studies were carried out with sodium pyrithione via the dermal route, one in rats which was not conducted under GLP and the other study in rabbits which was a GLP study conducted under USEPA Guidelines 83-3 which complies with OECD 414. 

 

A non - GLP developmental toxicity study to US EPA 83-3, which Complies with OECD 414. by Rodwell et al (1980), [reference 7.8.2.002, ESPTF 6081-005], investigated the administration of Sodium Pyrithione to the rat.

 

Groups of 25 pregnant rats were exposed dermally to 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 7.0 mg/kg/day on gestation days 6-15. NOTE: animals had test article applied to their shaven backs but there was no attempt to remove the test article until 24 hours after the very last dose on gestation day 15.  The high dose of 7.0 mg/kg/day proved to be excessively high as 5 females died during the study with severe reductions in bodyweight gain for all females in this group. Additional findings in the high dosed group was foeto-toxicity observed as decrease in foetal bodyweight and delayed ossification; and malformations such as bent ribs and bent limb bones. No developmental toxicity or malformations were observed in any of the foetuses from any of the other doses. Signs of dermal irritation was observed at the site of application in all treatment groups with the 0.5 mg/kg group showing only slight irritation. The NOAEL for developmental and maternal toxicity was determined to be 3.0 mg/kg/day.

 

The dermal developmental NOAEL is 3.0 mg/kg/day for sodium pyrithione.

 

A GLP developmental toxicity study to US EPA 83-3, which Complies with OECD 414. by Keller (1987), [reference 7.8.2.003, ESPTF 6081-006], investigated the administration of Sodium Pyrithione to the rabbit.

 

Groups of 20 inseminated New Zealand White Rabbits, were administered NaPT via dermal application on gestation days 6-19. Animals were exposed to 0, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/day for 6 hrs per day and the skin was washed with water and then blotted dry. The only sign of toxicity was a depressed bodyweight gain observed in the high dosed animals.

 

The Developmental NOAEL is 5.0 mg/kg/day and the overall NOAEL for the study was 2.5 mg/kg/day for sodium pyrithione.

  

A GLP developmental toxicity study to US EPA 83-3, which Complies with OECD 414. by Schardein (1993), [reference 7.8.2.001, EZPTF 6081-001], investigated the administration of Zinc Pyrithione to the New Zealand white rabbit.

 

Groups of twenty inseminated New Zealand White SPF female rabbits were treated with 0.5, 1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg/day on days 6 - 18 of gestation. All fetuses from all litters were examined externally, viscerally and skeletally for malformations and/or variations. There was reduced food consumption at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg/day. There were statistically significant decreases in mean maternal weight gain during dosing in the mid and high groups and an increased incidence of red fluid in the refuse pan was noted for the high dose females relative to that in the control group. There was a higher incidence of decreased defecation observed for animals in the treated groups than for the control animals. One doe in the high-dose group aborted at gestation day 27. Whole litter resorption occurred for one doe in the mid-dose group and five does in the high-dose group.

 

In addition, there was an increase in the mean post-implantation loss and a decrease in the mean number of viable fetuses in both the mid and high-dosed groups. All parameters for the low-dose group were similar to control animal values.  The high-dose group fetuses were observed to have an increase in the incidence of malformations primarily in the cephalic and limb regions. Multiple cephalic and limb malformations were observed in three fetuses from two litters, with another fetus from one of these litters having a vertebral malformation with an associated rib malformation.

                                                           

There were no treatment related or statistically significant differences in the incidence of malformations between the control and the low and mid-dose groups. In addition, there were no dose-related differences in the incidence of developmental variations noted between the control and any treatment group.

 

The NOAEL for this study is 0.5 mg/kg/day (for maternal toxicity)and 1.5 mg/kg/day for malformations and developmental variations. Although, due to the severity of maternal toxicity observed at the 1.5 mg/kg dose group resorptions and implanation losses were observed.

 

A GLP developmental toxicity study to US EPA 83-3, which Complies with OECD 414. by Schardein (1993) [reference 7.8.2.002, EZPTF 6081-002], investigated the administration of Zinc Pyrithione to the rat GD 6-15.

 

Thirty mated female Charles River Crl: CD VAD/Plus rats were randomly assigned into treatment groups receiving 0, 0.75, 3.0, or 15.0 mg/kg/day. Twenty-seven litters from the control group, 30 litters from the low-dose group, 25 litters from the intermediate group, and 24 litters from the high dose group were evaluated for fetal malformations. Females in the high-dose (15.0 mg/kg/day) group lost weight or showed reduced weight (Table 6.8.1-1.1). Other indications of toxicity in the high dosed females was a persistent dilation of the pupils through gestation day 15 and the observation of increased salivation immediately after administration of the test article. There was a statistically significant increase post-implantation loss and a reduction in the mean number of viable fetuses, in the high-dose group. Whole litter resorption occurred for three dams in the high-dose group with a reduction in mean fetal body weight and in mean gravid uterine weight. 

 

There was significant maternal toxicity at the mid- and high dose levels and at the high dose level, skeletal malformations and developmental variations were observed in the litters. The most common skeletal malformation was a vertebral malformation with or without an associated rib malformation. Soft tissue malformations observed in one or two fetuses in the high dose group included dimorphism, a malformed brain, and renal hypoplasia. Developmental variations observed in the high dose litters were related to the vertebrae, ribs, and sternebrae; and soft tissue variations were observed in the ureter and renal papillae which were present at an increased incidence relative to control litters. 

                                                           

Fetal survival (increased post-implantation loss) and mean fetal weight were also adversely affected in this treatment group. At the mid dose level, a slight increase in the incidence of fetal malformations and a less pronounced increase in mean post-implantation loss were observed in comparison with the control group. With the exception of fused ribs, the specific malformations seen in the high-dose litters were not evident in the mid dose litter. Skeletal malformations observed in the mid-dose group fetuses included absent lumbar and caudal vertebrae, a pelvic malformation and fused skull bones. Soft tissue malformation observed in the mid-dose litters included a diaphragmatic hernia and, for the fetes with the tail malformation, anal atresia. There were no treatment related or statistically significant differences in the incidence of malformations between the control and low-dose groups. Resorptions and skeletal effects were observed only at maternally toxic doses. Additionally in relationship to the increase in resorptions, an increase was noted in the control animals as well as in the intermediate and the high dose animals. The body weight gains and food consumption were dramatically reduced during the early phase of gestation i.e. gestation days 9-12 demonstrating that the maternal toxicity was clearly associated with the observation of an increase in resorptions. 

 

The NOAEL administered orally to rats during gestation days 6-15 was 0.75 mg/kg/day with regard to maternal and development toxicity.

 

In brief the rat study noted a decrease in body weight gain that was 22% to 27% at the intermediate dose observed throughout the sensitive time of gestation (days 6-15; during the treatment with test article) and at the high dose decreases in body weight were noted (excessive decrease in body weight gain) and in fact a decrease in body weight was noted in the first part of the treatment period. The second half of the treatment period resulted in 27% to 67% decrease in body weight gain. This clearly demonstrates maternal toxicity and represents "severe" maternal toxicity. The severe maternal toxicity clearly impacts the development of the embryo that includes anything from resorptions, minor to major developmental effects to malformations.

 

It should be noted that the body weight gain data for rats showed that at the high dose there was a 37% decrease in body weight gain. Furthermore, the adjusted weights were taken over the entire test period that evaluated days 0-29, treatment occurred from days 6-15 (sensitve time for development) and does not take into account any rebounding effect that may occur when removing the animal from the stress of treatment (apparent in the mid treated animals).

 

Both the rat and rabbit developmental studies with ZPT demonstrated significant to severe maternal toxicity that was well above what most regulators and researchers consider significant, at much greater than 10% decrease in body weight gain and at the high doses decreases in overall body weight (no body weight gains) was observed.

 

Furthermore, in a study in rats administered ZPT via the most typical human route of exposure, dermal, (see below) clearly demonstrated that when maternal toxicity is mild (~10% decrease in body weight gain) no developmental effects nor malformations are observed. However, when maternal toxicity is increased (>>10%) minor developmental toxicity can be observed.

 

A GLP developmental toxicity study to U.S. EPA (1998). Health Effects Test Guidelines. OPPTS 870.3700, which Complies with OECD 414. by Barnett (2005), [reference 7.8.2.003, EZPTF 6081-003, investigated the dermal administration of Zinc Pyrithione to the rat, administered from Gestation Day 0-21. 

No deaths related to the test substance occurred. One rat in the 15 mg/kg/day dosage group and one rat in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group were found dead on DG 5. These deaths were not considered related to the test substance based on the early day of gestation and a lack of adverse clinical signs in these dams.  

 

There was an increased number of rats with limited use of hind limbs in the 30 mg/kg/day dosage group and an increased number or significantly increased number of rats in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group with: erythema (grade 1), flaking (grade 1), limited use of the hind limbs, shuffling gait, dehydration, ungroomed coat, urine-stained abdominal fur, low carriage, chromodacryorrhea, emaciation, chromorhinorrhea, hunched posture and no use of hind limbs. 

 

Body weights were significantly reduced in the 30 mg/kg/day dosage group on DGs 13 to 21 and DGs 7 to 21 in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups. 

 

Dosage-dependent, significant reductions in body weight gains occurred in the 30 and 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups for the entire dosage period, as compared with the vehicle control group values. Body weight gains in the 10, 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups were 96.7%, 93.4%, 77.4% and 30.0%, respectively, of vehicle control group values during the dosage period. Uterine weights in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group were significantly reduced, as compared to the control group value. Corrected body weights were significantly reduced in the 30 and 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups. Corrected body weight gains were significantly reduced in the 30 and 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups on DGs 9 to 21 (30 mg/kg/day) and in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group on DGs 7to 21.

 

Dosage-dependent, significant reductions in absolute feed consumption values occurred in the 30 and 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups for the entire dosage period, as compared with the vehicle control group values and significant reductions in relative feed consumption values occurred in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups for the entire dosage period (calculated as DGs 0 to 21). 

 

In the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group, low muscle tone was observed in 1/24 rats on DG 8. There was a significant increase in the number of rats in the 60 mg/kg/day observed with low muscle tone on DGs 12, 16 and 20 and a corresponding significant reduction in the number of rats observed with moderate muscle tone on DGs 12, 16 and 20 in this same dosage group.

 

Muscle mass was slightly reduced on DG 12 in 1/23 rats in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group. There was a significant increase in the number of rats in the 60 mg/kg/day observed with slightly reduced muscle mass on DGs 16 and 20 and a corresponding reduction or significant reduction in the number of rats observed with normal muscle mass on DGs 16 and 20 in this same dosage group. 

 

Pregnancy occurred in 23 to 24 female rats per dosage group. Fetal body weights were significantly reduced in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group. The maternally toxic 60 mg/kg/day dosage group had significantly increased numbers of fetuses with any alteration principally composed of significant increases in the number of litters and fetuses with incomplete ossification of the sternal centra and the number of fetuses with wavy ribs.  Significant reductions in the ossification site averages for the caudal vertebrae, forelimb phalanges and metacarpals and hindlimb phalanges and metatarsals per fetus per litter in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups. 

 

On the basis of these data, the maternal no-observable-adverse effect-level (NOAEL) of Zinc Pyrithione is 15 mg/kg/day when dosed from gestational day 0 - 21. Reductions in body weight, body weight gain and/or body weight losses and absolute and/or relative feed consumption values occurred in the 30 and 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups. Reductions in muscle tone and/or muscle mass occurred in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group. 

 

The developmental NOEL is 30 mg/kg/day (gravid uterine weights, foetal body weights and skeletal ossification average were reduced and skeletal variations were increased in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group). Zinc Pyridinethione is not a selective developmental toxicant. 

Table 7.8.2     Summary of teratogenicity

Route

Testtype
Method
Guideline

Species
Strain
Sex
no/group

Exposure Period

Doses[mg/kg bw/day]

Critical
effects
dams
foetuses

NO(A)EL
maternal

NO(A)EL
Teratogenicity
Embryotoxicity

Reference

[mg/kg bw/day]

Oral

OECD 414
US OPPTS 870.3700

 

GLP

 

 

Rat:

Hsd: Sprague Dawley SD

 

24f per group

Day 16 to 19

0, 1, 2, 4 mg/kg bw

 

Natrium Pyrion 40.8% solution

Maternal toxicity:Lower body weight development and lower food consumption in high dosed females.
Difficulty in movement, impairment of hindlimbs, hunched posture and emaciation in the high dosed group.
Significant reduction in uterus weight in high dosed animals, compared to the control.

 

Teratogenic effects:Mean foetal weight was statistically lower in high dosed animals, compared to the control. Higher incidence of small foetuses in high dosed animals, compared to the control. This finding is related to maternal toxicity.

Higher incidence of incompletely ossifications of sternebrae, metacarpals and metatarsals in high dosed animals, compared to the control. These findings are related to maternal toxicity.

No evidence of a teratogenic effect of the test substance was obtained.

 

2 mg/kg bw/day

2 mg/kg bw/day

7.8.2.001

 

EZPTF 6081-004

Cicalese R, Brightwell J (2001).

 

 

Dermal

US EPA FIFRA Guideline 83-3 similar to OECD 414

 

GLP (self Certification by the laboratory).

Rabbit, New Zealand White, 20 females per dose,

 

Days 6 Through 19 of Gestation

0, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/day

 

Test material: Sodium Omadine®, 43.76% solution

Maternal toxicity:A significant decrease in body weight gain was observed in high dosed females compared to control animals during gestation days 6-13 and 13-20. These changes were deemed treatment related.

Teratogenicity:Foetal observations failed to show any signs of any developmental effects

NOAEL 2.5 mg/kg bw/day

NOAEL

5.0 mg/kg bw/day

7.8.2.003

 

ESPTF 6081-006

 

Keller, K.A. (1987) 

 

(unpublished)

Dermal

Non-GLP

Rat, Charles River COBS® CD®

 

Day 6 through 18

 

NOTE : Application site was not washed off until after the last dose on gestation day 18 only.

0, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 mg/kg/day

Maternal toxicity : Severe loss in bodyweight and deaths at 7.0 mg/kg/day dose. 

 

Developmental Toxicity:  All findings were confined to the high dosed animals at 7.0 mg/kg/day only. Fetotoxicity observed as decrease in fetus bodyweight and delayed ossification. Malformations observed in the fetuses at 7.0 mg/kg dose included bent ribs and limbs.

3.0 mg/kg/.day

3.0 mg/kg/day

7.8.2.003

 

ESPTF 6081-003

 

Janes, J.M., Rodwell, D.E., and Jessup, ,D.C. (1980)


 

Oral (gavage).

US EPA 83-3, which Complies with OECD 414. GLP (self Certification by the laboratory).

Rabbit, New Zealand White, 20 females per dose,

 

Test material: Zinc Omadine®, 48% Dispersion

Days 6 Through 19 of Gestation

0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0

 

Maternal toxicity:Body weight gain was decreased during the dosing period only, by 40% in mid dose group and the females failed to gain weight in high dose group. Food consumption was decreased during the dosing period only, by 15% and 23% in mid- and high dose groups respectively. Clinical signs included an increased incidence of excretion of red fluid (high dose only) and decreased defecation for all treated groups.

 

Teratogenicity:Post implantation losses of 65% were observed in high dose group, 29% in mid dose group and 12% in low dose and control group. The number of dams with viable foetuses was decreased in high dose to only 7/20, compared with 15-18/20 in other groups. The incidence of foetuses with abnormalities was increased in high dose group 7/26 compared with 7/105 in the controls (multiple cephalic and limb malformations occurred in 3 of the 7 litters examined in the high dose group). There was a significant increase in the number of foetuses with developmental variations in the mid dose group compared with controls.

 

0.5

0.5

7.8.2.001

 

EZPTF 6081-001

 

Schardein JL (1993)

(unpublished)

 


 

Oral (gavage)

US EPA 83-3, which Complies with OECD 414. GLP (self Certification by the laboratory).

Rat, Charles river, Crl:CD VAF/PLUS, 30 females per dose,

 

Test material: Zinc Omadine®, 48% Dispersion

Days 6 Through 15 of gestation.

0, 0.75, 3.0 and 15

 

Maternal toxicity:Body weight was decreased in the high dose group by 10% from day 12 until study termination. Body weight gain and food consumption were also decreased by 30% and 15% respectively in the high dose group, throughout the study. Clinical signs reported were dilated pupils in high dose animals and a dose-related increase in the incidence of excessive salivation in mid- and high dose groups.

 

Teratogenicity: In the high dose group, a clear increase in post implantation loss, a reduction in the number of viable foetuses (by 14%), a decrease in foetal weight (by 17%), marked increases in the incidence of vertebral malformations with or without associated rib malformations and specific limb malformations were observed. In the mid dose group, a slight increase in the incidence of foetal malformations and a less pronounced increase in mean post implantation loss was observed.

 

0.75

0.75

7.8.2.002

 

EZPTF 6081-002

 

Schardein JL (1993)

(unpublished)

 


 

Dermal

U.S. EPA (1998). Health Effects Test Guidelines. OPPTS 870.3700

Rat – Sprague Dawley females; 23-25 animals per dose group

Day 0 through 21 of Gestation

0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day

Maternal: Reductions in body weight, body weight gain and/or body weight losses and absolute and/or relative feed consumption values occurred in the 30 and 60 mg/kg/day dosage groups. Reductions in muscle tone and/or muscle mass occurred in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group. 

 

Developmental:  Gravid uterine weights, fetal body weights and skeletal ossification average were reduced and skeletal variations were increased in the 60 mg/kg/day dosage group.. 

 

Zinc Pyrithione is not a selective developmental toxicant. 

15 mg/kg/day

30 mg/kg/day

7.8.2.003

 

EZPTF 6081-003

 

Barnett (2005)

 (unpublished)

 

Justification for classification or non-classification

Additional information