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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
fish early-life stage toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Long-term toxicity on growth and mortality of fish
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
purity: reagent grade
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were collected and analyzed twice weekly for the fish chronic toxicity tests.
Five mL samples of exposure water and 50mL of control tank water were collected and diluted to near 100mL with deionized water. Before final volume adjustment, samples were acidified (1%HNO3,v/v) and fortified with 0.6% hydrogenperoxide (H202, v/v) and 0.1% nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO3)z-6H20, w/v). Sample digestion was omitted.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
A stock solution was made at a concentration of 5.000 mg food/L of water and fed in quantity sufficient to give 30 mg/L of food in the exposure chamber
Test organisms (species):
Jordanella floridae
Details on test organisms:
Flagfish embryos and fry obtained from the culture unit at the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth (ERL-D), Duluth, MN were fed live brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii and reared in continuously flowing 25 °C water.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
31 d
Post exposure observation period:
Jordanella floridae: ca. 7 d hatching time + 31 d
Hardness:
46.3-49.9 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
23-25.8 °C
pH:
7.2-8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
79.6-99.3%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
1.24, 2.13, 4.12, 7.6 and 16.3 mg/L
Test concentration were analytically confirmed.
Details on test conditions:
Each duplicate tank contained two embryo incubation cups suspended from rocker arms which oscillated once every 10sec a distance of one half the cup depth. The cups were 4.4 cm I.D. by9.0 cm deep glass cylinders with Nytex| mesh cemented to an open bottom.
Flagfish embryos were treated in a 0.4 mg/L solution of malachitegreen for 10 rain during days1 and 2 of incubation. Eggs were observeddaily and dead eggs"were counted and removed. flagfish embryos hatched by days 6 and 7, respectively.On the day of hatching, fry were rinsed into petri plates and examined for survivaland abnormalities.Ten healthy appearing fry from each embryocup were returned to the chamberfor a total of 20 fry/duplicate chamberof eachspecies.
Chambers were cleaned and siphoned at least three times/ week. The numberof surviving fry were counted weekly. Fish were fed an excess of live brine shrimp three times daily and Tetra Min| baby fish food once daily.
Key result
Duration:
31 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 130 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
length
Key result
Duration:
31 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 130 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
weight
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC with ANOVA using Dunnett’s test
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The lowest reliable long-term NOEC value reported for length and weight of Jordanella floridae is 2130 µg As /L.
Endpoint:
fish early-life stage toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
5 days toxicity test on Oncorhynchus mykiss
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
NaAsO2
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
life stage: Fertilised eggs
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
5 d
Hardness:
90-105 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
12-14 °C
pH:
7.0-7.8
Dissolved oxygen:
near saturation
Details on test conditions:
0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg As /L
Key result
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
234 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
larval development
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
550 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
larval development
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC10 have been re-calculated using Trap software (log-logistic curve fitting)
EC50 using log-probit analyses
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Remarks:
As concentrations were confirmed by AAS; EC10 calculated from the dose-response data
Conclusions:
The 5-d EC10 for development of Oncorhynchus mykiss eggs is 234 µg As/L.
Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
28 day toxicity test with Pimephales promelas
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Exposures were conducted using Na2HAsO4·7H2O (CAS#10048-95-0, purity > 99%, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Experiment 1 exposures were conducted using Na2HAsO4·7H2O (CAS#10048-95-0, purity > 99%, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
Fathead minnows were from the in-house culture at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED) (Duluth, MN, USA), which is maintained in filtered Lake Superior water (LSW) at 25°C. This water has a typical pH of ca. 7.5, a hardness of ca. 48 mg CaCO3/L, an alkalinity of ca. 44 mg CaCO3/L, and a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 1–2 mg C/L.
A cohort of newly hatched fry (0–24 h old) from multiple spawnings were isolated and fed brine shrimp nauplii ad libitum until a few days before test start, at which time they were also provided with uncontaminated worms to introduce them to this source of food. Fish were 30 d old at test start.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Hardness:
48 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
25°C
pH:
7.5
Dissolved oxygen:
6.8 mg O2/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
iAsV nominal concentrations: 4.0, and 8.0 μg As/L
These means were within 15% of nominal and individual measurements were typically within 10% of the means, with maximum excursions being less than 20%.
Details on test conditions:
Experiment 1 evaluated combined waterborne and dietborne exposures in a factorial design of (a) 3 levels of direct As water exposure of the fish to iAsV (0, 4, and 8 mg As/L) and (b) 4 As levels in diet (live oligochaete worms, Lumbriculus variegatus, that had been separately exposed to iAsV for 7 d at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, and 8 mg As/L). The duration of this experiment was 28 d and each treatment had two re- plicate tanks with 10 fish per tank.
Each treatment had 3 replicate test tanks with 10 fish per tank.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
3 800 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
3 800 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
weight
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC with ANOVA using Dunnett’s test
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The NOEC for fathead minnow for mortality and growth (weight) 3800 µg As/L.
Endpoint:
fish short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Long-term toxicity on growth and mortality of fish.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
purity: reagent grade
NaAsO2
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were collected and analyzed twice weekly for the fish chronic toxicity tests.
Five mL samples of exposure water and 50mL of control tank water were collected and diluted to near100mL with deionized water. Before final volume adjustment, samples were acidified (1%HNO3,v/v) and fortified with 0.6% hydrogenperoxide (H202, v/v) and 0.1% nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO3)z-6H20, w/v). Sample digestion was omitted.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
A stock solution was made at a concentration of 5,000 mg food/L of water and fed in quantity sufficient to give 30 mg/L of food in the exposure chamber
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
Fathead minnow embryos and fry obtained from the culture unit at the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth (ERL-D), Duluth, MN were fed live brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii and reared in continuously flowing 25 °C water.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
29 d
Post exposure observation period:
Pimephales promelas: ca. 6 d hatching time + 29 d
Hardness:
46.3-49.9 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
23-25.8 °C
pH:
7.2-8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
79.6-99.3%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
1.06, 2.13, 4.3, 7.4 and 16.5 mg/L
Test concentration were analytically confirmed.
Details on test conditions:
Each duplicate tank contained two embryo incubation cups suspended from rocker arms which oscillated once every 10sec a distance of one half the cup depth. The cups were 4.4 cm inner diameter by 9.0 cm deep glass cylinders with Nytex| mesh cemented to an open bottom.
Fifty fathead embryos were randomly selected and transferred into each of 24 embryo incubationcups with a wide-mouthglasspipette. Eggs were observed daily and dead eggs"were counted and removed. On the day of hatching, fry were rinsed into petri plates and examined for survivaland abnormalities.Ten healthy appearing fry from each embryocup were returned to the chamberfor a total of 20 fry/duplicate chamberof eachspecies.
Chambers were cleaned and siphoned at least three times/ week. The numberof surviving fry were counted weekly. Fish were fed an excess of live brine shrimp three times daily and Tetra Min| baby fish food once daily.
Key result
Duration:
29 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 130 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
length
Key result
Duration:
29 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
7 400 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
mortality
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC with ANOVA using Dunnett’s test
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The lowest reliable long-term NOEC value reported for freshwater fish is 2130 µg As /L for the growth (weight and length) of Pimephales promelas.
The reported NOEC value on mortality for the same specie was 7400 µg As /L.
Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
11 weeks long chronic toxicity test of As on fish
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
HAsNa2O4·7H2O
purity: reagent grade
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Water samples were taken daily from each tank, acidified to 1% with analytical gade nitric acid, and stored for determination of arsenic concentration.
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Fingerling rainbow trout, with an initial weight of 5.7 g, were obtained from the Spring Valley Trout Farm , St. Petersburg, Ontario, After a 1-wk period in the laboratory at 10"C, h e fish were randomly distributed to 16 continuous-flow 50-L aquaria (100 per aquarium) where the water temperature was adjusted to either 5 or 15°C by increments of 1OC per day. Once the test temperature had been attained, the fish were subjected to a further 2.5-wk acclimation period prior to the start of the arsenate exposure. Thoughout the acclimation period the trout were fed a semi-purified diet at a rate of 1% (5OC) or 2% (15°C) wet weight-d-'. The diet, containing 50% protein, 25% carbohydrate, 15% fish oil, and 10% vitamin premix, was formulated
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
other: groundwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
11 wk
Hardness:
377 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
15.3 °C
pH:
7.93
Dissolved oxygen:
80-90% saturation
Nominal and measured concentrations:
1.5, 18 and 36 mg/L,
Mean in-tank assayed arsenic concentrations ranged from 85 to 98% of nominal with a mean coefficient of variation of 17.5.
Details on test conditions:
During arsenate exposure the fish were fed a minimum of four times daily. The percent ration fed ranged from 1.7% wet weight/d at 5OC to 4.1% wet weight/d at 15°C.
The daily feeding ration, adjusted weekly, was based on the total aquarium biomass for each replicate. All test aquaria were cleaned of faecal material daily.
The pho toperiod was 16 h light: 8 8 dark, with 0.5 h of gradual dawn and dusk included in the light portion of the cycle.
The trout were exposed to sodimasenate at 4 concentrations in duplicate.
Key result
Duration:
11 wk
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 770 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
weight
Duration:
11 wk
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
35 670 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
weight
Key result
Duration:
11 wk
Dose descriptor:
LC10
Effect conc.:
24 600 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
11 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 18 050 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
11 wk
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
42 800 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (total fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
background concentration: 10 µg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC10 have been re-calculated using Trap software (log-logistic curve fitting)
LC10 have been re-calculated using Trap software (log-logistic curve fitting)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 11 weeks long chronic toxicity test on Oncorhynchus mykiss of As has yielded the following results:
EC10 (growth- weight): 8.770 mg As/L
LC10 (mortality): 24.600 mg As/L
Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
181-d chronic study which exposed trout to nominal arsenite concentrations of 0.5, 2.0, or 8.0 mg As/L.
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
As2O3
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were taken every third day during the chronic exposure.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Arsenite stock solutions were prepared with arsenic trioxide (As,O, >98% pure, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.). The appropriate amount of As,O, was dissolved in 30 L of 0.5% NaOH (w:v) and deionized water was added to bring the volume to 120 L. Concentrated HCl was added to neu- tralize the NaOH and bring the pH to 6.5, thus reducing the potential for oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. The stock solution was adjusted to a final volume of 125 L, capped to further minimize the potential for oxidation, and held at room temperature.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Fish for the chronic study (initial wet weight, 2.5-3.5 g) were obtained from Spring Valley Trout Farm, Petersburg, Ont., and held as outlined above at 13 °C.
They were held in 200-L continuous-flow (1 L/min) tanks at 10°C for 1 wk prior to the initiation of the toxicity tests. During this time, they were fed a commercial juvenile salmonid diet (40% protein. 3% cellulose, 12% crude fat) at a rate of 3% wet weight/day. The acclimation photoperiod, used throughout the study, was 12 h light : 12 h dark with 0.5 h of artificial dusk and dawn included in the light portion of the cycle.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
181 d
Hardness:
380 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
13 °C
pH:
7.8
Dissolved oxygen:
7.8 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.5, 2.0, or 8.0 mg/L
As concentration ranged from 96 to 152% of nominal with a mean CV of 14.2.
Details on test conditions:
During the chronic study, each exposure was performed in triplicate using a pair-fed design where each treated tank was paired with an unexposed control tank for a total of 18 tanks (3 concentrations X 2 controls X 3 replicates). Food was provided to the total biomass of each paired control tank to match the daily food consumption of the fish in the corresponding paired exposure tank.

The exposure apparatus consisted of eighteen 76-L aerated rectangular glass aquaria adjusted to 60 L with standpipes. Arsenite exposure solutions of the required concentration were delivered to the tanks by a modified Mount and Brungs diluter (Lemke et al. 1978). The flow rate to each tank was maintained at 180 mL-min-' for a 90% molecular replacement time of 0.5 d.
Three weeks prior to the chronic study, 60 fish were randomly allocated to each of the I8 tanks. For the first week, they were fed the commercial salmonid diet. At the start of the second week the original diet was replaced with a semi- purified experimental diet formulated at the Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph (Table I). The diet was mixed in 20-kg batches, steam-pelleted, and cmm- bled to size as required. After 2 wk on the new diet, arsenite exposure was initiated as outlined for the acute toxicity test. Throughout the exposure, the total wet weight of the fish in each tank was determined weekly to monitor changes in wet weight and to determine (and modify) the feeding rate. The fish were counted into a polyethylene colander held in water. The colander was weighed with and without fish to give (by difference) the total biomass of fish per tank. The fish were then returned to the exposure tanks. The fish were fed three times a day. As a guide, rations of 3% total biomass were prepared daily. Food was provided to match the vigour of the feeding response (excess food was avoided); the last daily feeding was adjusted such that consumption by controls matched that of their paired exposure tank. Mortalities (recorded daily) over the 121-d growth portion of the chronic study were expressed as a percentage of the initial number of fish in each tank (60).
Key result
Duration:
181 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 480 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
weight
Details on results:
During the study, control tanks were sampled on a rotating basis; the background concentration never exceeded the detection limit of 0.02 mg As/L.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
During the 181 day toxicity test the NOEC on growth (weight) of the species Oncorhynchus mykiss was reported to be 2480 µg As /L.
Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to fish, other
Remarks:
Mortality, Hatching and Growth (weight)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM, 1984
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Long term toxicity test on fish (Pimephales promelas).
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
reported in study: regent grade sodium arsenite (Na2AsO4.7H2O)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Reagent grade sodium arsenite was dissolved in distilled water.
Tests were conducted in Lake Superios water that was filtered through sand and heated to 25 +/- 3°C
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
The organisms were cultured in the respective water before they were tested.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
32 d
Hardness:
43.9 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
25°C
pH:
7.4
Dissolved oxygen:
n/a
Details on test conditions:
1.34, 2.52, 4.4, 8.34 and 16.41 mg As /L
Key result
Duration:
32 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 520 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
weight
Key result
Duration:
32 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
8 340 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
32 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 16 140 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: hatching
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC with ANOVA using Dunnett’s test
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
32d long term toxicity on Pimephales promelas was performed for As. The obtained NOEC values are the following:
NOEC on Growth (weight): 2520 µg As/L
NOEC on Mortality: 8340 µg As/L
NOEC on Hatching: >16140 µg As/L
Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
28 days long-term toxicity test on growth (length and weight) of juvenile fish
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
NaAsO2
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Platichthys stellatus
Details on test organisms:
Juvenile starry flounder, P. stellatus, were obtained from a local fish farm in Gijang, Korea. The fish were acclimated to adapt to the laboratory environment for 2 weeks. The temperature was set at two sections (12 °C, 18°C), and the temperature was maintained using electronic thermostats (MS701-H, Mink, Korea).

The amount of feed was set at 3% of the weight of the fish and they were fed once a day.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Test temperature:
12°C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal concentrations of arsenic were divided into 0, 150, 300, and 600 μg As/L
The actual measured concentrations were 0.668, 167, 312, and 626 μg As/L.
Details on test conditions:
Waterborne As exposure took place in 40L aquaria containing 12 fish per treatment group. The concentrations of arsenic were divided into 0, 150, 300, and 600μg per L (using sodium arsenite solution diluted in distilled water). The concentration of each tank was measured using ICP-MS, and the actual concentrations were 0.668, 167, 312, and 626μg/L.
The aquarium completely changed the test water once every 2 days and maintained the same concentration in each aquarium before and after the change. The total exposure period was 4 weeks.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
312 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
length
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
312 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
weight
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 28 days of toxicity test on juvenile fish on growth (length and weight) provided a result of a NOEC value of 312 µg As/L.

Description of key information

Reliable chronic toxicity data were identified for 3 freshwater fish species. The chronic toxicity values for species Oncorhynchus mykiss varied between 234 µg As/L (endpoint development) and 24600 µg As/L (endpoint mortality). For the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas the NOEC varied between 2130 µg As/L (endpoint growth) and 8340 µg As/L (endpoint mortality). For Jordanella floridae a NOEC of 2130 µg As/L (endpoint growth) was observed.

A number of unbounded NOEC-values were identified for the trout species Oncorhynchus mykiss, the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the amphibian Rana pipiens. These data were not taken into account for the derivation of a PNEC, but were considered as supporting studies when evaluating the level of protection of the PNEC for the aquatic system in general.

Only two chronic toxicity values for marine fish are available for the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus. A 28 d NOEC of 312 µg As/L is reported for the endpoints weight and length gain.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information