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The available reliable ecotoxicity data about the effect of arsenic on aquatic organisms are based on dissolved elemental arsenic concentrations. The available data do not allow a conclusion regarding the As source or the effect of specific water parameters, including hardness, pH, phosphate level, on the toxicity of arsenic to aquatic organisms. Therefore, reliable toxicity data of As substances were expressed as dissolved arsenic and grouped. The lowest reliable toxicity data selected for the aquatic hazard assessment of arsenic are tabulated below.

Trophic level

Species

Parameter

Endpoint

Value(mg As/L)

Reference

Acute freshwater toxicity

Fish

Pimephales promelas

mortality

4-d LC50

12.6

Spehar & Fiandt, 1986

Invertebrates

Hyalella azteca

mortality

7-d LC50

0.43

Borgman et al, 2004

Algae/plants

Lemna minor

growth

14-d EC50

0.63

Jenner & Janssen-Mommen, 1993

Acute marine toxicity

Fish

Morone saxatilis

mortality

4-d LC50

10.3

Dwyer et al, 1992

Invertebrates

Americamysis bahia

mortality

4-d LC50

1.74

Lussier et al, 1985

Algae/plants

Macrocystis pyrifera

reproduction

42-h EC50

0.09 – 0.11

Garman et al, 1994

Chronic freshwater toxicity

Fish

Jordanella floridae /Pimephales promelas

growth

35-d NOEC

2.13

 

Lima et al, 1984

Invertebrates

Daphnia magna

reproduction

28-NOEC

0.63

Lima et al, 1984

Chronic marine toxicity

Invertebrates

Americamysis bahia

reproduction

/mortality

51-d NOEC

0.63

Lussier et al, 1985

Algae/plants

Macrocystis pyrifera

reproduction

42-h NOEC

0.04

Garman et al, 1994

 

Reliable short-term toxicity data are available for 7 freshwater organisms, representing three trophic levels: aquatic invertebrates (Bosmina longirostris, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, Hyalella azteca),fish (Oreochromis mossambicus, Pimephales promelas) and aquatic plants (Lemna minor).Additionally, short-term toxicity data are available for marine fish (Oreochromis mossambicus), the marine crustacean (Americamysis bahia) and the marine macroalgae Macrocystis pyrifera. Acute L(E)C50 values were based on dissolved arsenic concentrations and range from 0.09 mg As/L to 15.98 mg As/L. The lowest L(E)C50 value of 0.09 - 0.11 mg/L was observed in a 42-h test of the marine macroalgae Macrocystis pyrifera (Garman et al, 1994).

Reliable long-term toxicity data are available for 4 freshwater organisms covering two trophic levels (primary consumers and secondary consumers): aquatic invertebrates (Daphnia magna), fish (Jordanella floridae, Pimephales promelas) and amphibian (Rana pipiens). Chronic NOEC or EC10-values based on dissolved arsenic concentration range from 0.63 mg As/L to 2.13 mg As/L. The lowest chronic NOEC value of 0.633 mg As/L was observed in a reproduction test of Daphnia magna (Lima et al, 1984). In addition to long-term toxicity data to freshwater organisms covering two trophic levels, reliable long-term toxicity data are available for the effect of arsenic on survival of the marine invertebrate Americamysis bahia and growth and reproduction of two marine macroalgae Champia parvula and Macrocystis pyrifera, respectively. The NOEC values based on dissolved arsenic range from 0.04 mg/L to 0.63 mg As/L with the lowest value observed for the 42-h reproduction test of Macrocystis pyrifera.