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Toxicity to birds

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Endpoint:
toxicity to birds
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
feeding study on Gallus gallus domesticus
GLP compliance:
not specified
Dose method:
feed
Test organisms (species):
other: Gallus gallus domesticus
Details on test organisms:
Rhode Island Red Hens
Total exposure duration (if not single dose):
19 d
No. of animals per sex per dose and/or stage:
A control group was included in the trial. The hens from each group were formed into three subgroups. The eggs of two hens, laid in three days, formed a composite sample.
Nominal and measured doses / concentrations:
7.5, 15.0, 30.0 mg As/kg diet
Duration (if not single dose):
19 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect level:
30 mg/kg diet
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: survival, feed consumption, number of eggs per hen, body weight, average egg weight
Duration (if not single dose):
19 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
2.24 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: survival, feed consumption, number of eggs per hen, body weight, average egg weight
Remarks on result:
other: corresponds to a NOEC of 30mg As / kg diet
Conclusions:
Reproduction, growth, behavior and survival were not significantly affected at 2.24 mg/kg bw/day (30 mg As/kg diet).
Endpoint:
toxicity to birds
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Feeding study with mallard ducklings
GLP compliance:
not specified
Dose method:
feed
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on preparation and analysis of diet:
The commercial duck starter mash (Beacon Feeds, Cayuga, NY) contained 22% protein, 3% crude fat and 4% crude fiber. Moisture
content ranged from 12.1 to 14.2%. Dietary exposures started as soon as the ducklings were placed in the pens. Feed was mixed on a weekly basis and samples of the diets were taken from each batch of feed mixed. Two samples of each diet were randomly selected for arsenic analysis.
Test organisms (species):
Anas platyrhynchos
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Mallard
- Source: Oak Ridge Game Farm, Gravette, AR
- Age at test initiation: 1 d; ducklings
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD):
- Sexes used / mixed or single sex:
- Cultural background:
- Disease free: [yes / no]
- Kept according to standard practices: [yes / no]
- Breeding population (e.g. reproductive history):
Total exposure duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Nominal and measured doses / concentrations:
0, 30, 100, 300 mg As/kg; doses were analytically confirmed
Duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect level:
300 mg/kg diet
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: mortality & histopathological lesions
Duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect level:
30 mg/kg diet
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect level:
30 mg/kg diet
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: growth of females
Duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect level:
100 mg/kg diet
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: growth (combined female & male)
Duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
3.72 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: mortality & histopathological lesions
Remarks on result:
other: based on 300 mg As/kg diet
Duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
1.49 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Remarks on result:
other: based on 30 mg As/ kg diet
Duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
4.98 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: growth (combined female & male)
Remarks on result:
other: based on 100 mg/kg diet
Duration (if not single dose):
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
1.49 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Conc. / dose based on:
element
Remarks:
As
Basis for effect:
other: growth of females
Remarks on result:
other: based on 30 mg As/ kg diet
Conclusions:
A NOEC protective of growth , behaviour, histopathological changes and mottality was derived at the feed concentration of 30 mg/Kg and the resulting NOAEL of 1.49 mg As/kg bw/d.

Description of key information

Reliable studies are available regarding the avian toxicity of arsenic covering survival, body weight or reproduction of the two species Gallus gallus domesticus and Anas platyrhynchos. Based on a NOEC of 30 mg As/kg diet, the NOAELs vary between 1.49 and 2.24 mg As/kg bw/d, respectively.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for birds:
30 mg/kg food

Additional information