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Sediment toxicity

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The effect of the test substance on the sediment compartment and sediment organisms was not tested. C.I. Pigment Yellow 34 and C.I. Pigment Red 104 are very stable in the environment but a low proportion of the substance may dissociate and release chromate and lead ions. The bioavailability of these ions is assumed to be very low. It depends on sediment pH, the amount of organic matter or mineral particles and alkalinity (chapter 5.4). Therefore, the bioavailability of dissociating chromate and lead ions is presumably limited.

However, data on the influence of chromate and lead demonstrate that both metals have detrimental effects on sediment organisms.

In a study on lead uptake from sediment by river crabs accumulation of lead was determined. Smaller crabs had a higher lead concentration as larger crabs (mean 72.6 +/- 59 µg/g and 3.6 +/- 1.3 µg/g respectively) (Reinecke et al. 2003). Comparable results were demonstrated by a second study on lead uptake by polychaetes. The sensitivity of smaller animals was higher compared to larger individuals. After 28 days of exposure a LC50 of 19 mg/l was determined for smaller polychaetes whereas for larger animals a LC50 (28 d) of 28 mg/l was detected (Bat et al. 2001). The bioaccumulation of chromium in phytoplankton and mussels was investigated using radio labeled chromium (III) and chromium (VI) (Wang et al.1997). Chromium (III) and, to a smaller extent, chromium (VI) was concentrated by phytoplankton (DCF Cr(III): 12000 -130000; DCF Cr(VI): 190 -500) . Comparable concentration rates were measured for mussels.