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Environmental fate & pathways

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After release of C.I. Pigment Yellow 34 and/or C.I. Pigment Red 104 into the environment, a small fraction consisting of chromate ions (CrO42-) and lead ions (Pb2+) will dissociate from the solids and partition in the environmental compartments.

Both lead and chromium will bioaccumulate in fish and other aquatic organisms. The (median) BCF fish for lead was 23 L/kg whereas the 50th percentile for a mixed diet was 1553 L/kg. Chromium (VI) appears to be reduced to chromium (III) once it has been taken up in the organisms. Therefore a BCF of 100 was estimated from the total chromium concentration in biota / chromium (VI) concentration in water. Mean BAFs for earthworm were 0.11 and 0.10 kg/kg ww for chromium and lead, respectively.

The relatively high Kd-values for lead and chromium indicate that both moieties may adsorb to suspended particles and soil. The partitioning of lead and chromium depends on pH, Fe-oxide, mineral particles and DOC-contents of water and soil. At neutral pH lead mostly forms carbon-lead complexes, whereas at low pH lead exists predominantly in the more mobile ionic form. Soil pH has a comparable effect on chromium; with increasing pH the adsorption of chromium increases. Furthermore, at neutral pH CrO42- ions are expected to be reduced to the less mobile chromium III in the environment. The mobility of both ions decreases with increasing proportion of organic matter in soils.