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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: only secondary source

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Embryotoxicity of orally administered chromium in mice: Exposure during the period of organogenesis
Author:
Junaid M, Murthy RC and Saxena DK
Year:
1996
Bibliographic source:
Toxicol Lett 84:143-148
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Toxicological profile for chromium
Author:
US dempartment of health and human services
Year:
2000
Bibliographic source:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch

Materials and methods

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): potassium dichromate; no additional data

Test animals

Species:
mouse
Strain:
other: Swiss albino mice
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
no detail information

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: drinking water
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
no additional data
Details on mating procedure:
no additional data
Duration of treatment / exposure:
days 6–14 of gestation
Frequency of treatment:
in drinking water
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 53.2, 101.1, and 152.4 mg chromium(VI)/kg/day
Basis:
other: actually ingested eq. mg chromium(VI)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 female animals per group
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: No data

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: no data

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: no data

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No data

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day # 15
- Organs examined: no data
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: No data
- Number of corpora lutea: No data
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of resorptions: Yes
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: No data
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: No data
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: No data
- Head examinations: Yes: No data

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes

Details on maternal toxic effects:
No notable changes in behavior or clinical signs were observed in control or treated animals.
Reduction of gestational weight gains of 8.2 and 30% were observed for the animals in the intermediate- and high-dose groups.

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
The number of dead fetuses was higher in the high-dose group and fetal weight was lower in both intermediate- and high-dose groups (high dose = 1.06 g, intermediate dose = 1.14 g) as compared to the control value of 1.3 g. The number of resorption sites were 0.31 for controls, 1.00 for the low dose, 1.70 for the intermediate dose, and 2.30 for the high dose, demonstrating a dose-response relationship.

The studies also showed that there was a significantly greater incidence of post-implantation loss in the two highest-dose groups of 21 and 34.60% as compared to control value of 4.32%.

No significant gross structural abnormalities in any of the treated dosed groups were observed except for drooping of the wrist (carpal flexure) and subdermal hemorrhagic patches on the thoracic and abdominal regions in 16% in the offspring of the high-dose group.

Significant reduced ossification in nasal frontal, parietal, interparietal, caudal, and tarsal bones were observed only in the 152.4 mg chromium(VI)/kg/day-treated animals

Fetal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion