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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to fish

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Administrative data

adult fish: sub(lethal) effects
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Scientifically acceptable publication

Data source

Reference Type:
Chronic toxicity of water-borne and dietary lead to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in lake ontario water
Hodson PV, Blunt BR, Spry DJ
Bibliographic source:
Water Research Vol. 12: 869 - 878

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute lethal and chronic sublethal toxicity was tested in continous-flow bioassays. (Method according to Sprague J. B. (1969) Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish. I. Bioassay methods for acute toxicity. Water Res. 3, 793-821.)
Three different experiments were conducted
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
lead nitrate
lead nitrate
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): lead nitrate

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Erin Conservation Holdings LTD, Erin, USA
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 6.5 g (experiments I, II); 10.5 (Experiment III)
- Feeding during test
- Food type: EWOS, Astra Chemicals Ltd. (except feeding experiment); 2.4 g lead nitrate dissolved in 10 ml was added to homogenised beef liver. The powdered liver was added to commercial fish food.
- Amount: ad libitum (except feeding experiment)
- Frequency: daily

- Health/mortality:

Study design

Test type:
Water media type:
Limit test:
Total exposure duration:
3 wk

Test conditions

135 +/- 2 mg/l
Test temperature:
10.3 - 11.2 °C
7.7 +/- 1.8
Dissolved oxygen:
6.1 - 12 mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations:
Experiment I: control, 0.6 - 8 mg/l
Experiment II: control, 10, 18, 32, 56, 100 µg/l
Experiment III: control 100, 180, 320, 560, 10000 µg/kg
Details on test conditions:
- Test vessel: polyethylene tank 30 x 30x 30 cm
- Fill volume: 20 l
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): flow for each tank 300 ml/min (experiment I, II)/ 400 ml/min (experiment III)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 20 (I), 23 (II)
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1

- Source/preparation of dilution water: municipal water from lake Ontario. Filtrated (sand, charcoal). Alum was flocculated, chlorine supplemented.
- Alkalinity: 90 +/- 4 mg/l
- Conductivity: 245 +/- 9 µmhos/cm

- Photoperiod: 16:8 h day-night regime

Results and discussion

Details on results:
25 and 7 % mortality respectively in chronic and food experiments due to aggression.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Lead concentrations in body tissue of fish increased linearly with the lead concentration in water. The highest lead concentrations were observed in opercular bone followed by gills and kidney. Starting at a lead concentration of 13 µg/l lead accumulation in fish tissues occurred throughout all tested concentrations. Whereas the lead concentrations in the tissues did not increase when the lead concentrations in food were enhanced.

Hematological effects were detected in fish exposed to lead via water of at least 13 µg lead/l. The authors conclude from their data that lead induced an accelerated mortality and removal of mature red cells and an acceleration of hemopoiesis. Furthermore they suggest that a reduction of cellular hemoglobin occurred. At a concentration of 120 µg/l some test fish had black tails.

Applicant's summary and conclusion