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Physical & Chemical properties

Water solubility

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Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
2006
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Reference:
Composition 1
Composition 2
Composition 3
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 105 (Water Solubility)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of method:
flask method
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Naringin (N) was supplied by Lancaster Synthesis Gmbh (Frankfurt am Main, Germany).
Key result
Water solubility:
1 100 mg/L
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Incubation duration:
3 d
Temp.:
25 °C
Remarks on result:
other: pH not specified.
Details on results:
The solubility of N and Nn used batches was determined in biological fluids as follows:
- H2O, 1100 mg/L for Naringin (and 35 mg/L for Naringenin),
- Simulated Intestinal Fluid, 500 mg/L for Naringin (and 31 mg/L for Naringenin),
- Simulated Gastric Fluid 400 mg/L for Naringin (and 15 mg/L for Naringenin).
Conclusions:
The solubility of the test item was found to be 1100 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The solubility of the test item was determined by a method similar to OECD 105 (flask method). An excess amount of test substance was introduced into glass vials containing 50 ml of solvent; the samples were shaken and then were stored at room temperature (25°C). After 3 days, the liquid phases were centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm, the supernatants were filtered with 0.45 μm filters and the concentration of dissolved test substance was determined spectrophotometrically and confirmed by HPLC. The solubility of the test item was found to be 1100 mg/L.

Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1936.
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reference:
Composition 1
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The solubility was determined by a method similar to the flask method, but after a 2h equilibration period. Moreover, the concentration of the substance was not determined by a validated analytical method, but by evaporating the solvent and weighing the final amount of test item.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
flask method
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
The naringin used in these experiments was extracted from grapefruit peel, purified by the method outlined by Poore (Ind. Eng. Chem. 26 (6), 637-9, 1934. See 'attached Background material') and dried at 110°C; the melting point was 171°C. (uncor.).
Key result
Water solubility:
0.17 g/L
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Incubation duration:
2 h
Temp.:
6 °C
Remarks on result:
other: pH not specified.
Key result
Water solubility:
0.5 g/L
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Incubation duration:
2 h
Temp.:
20 °C
Remarks on result:
other: pH not specified.
Key result
Water solubility:
0.79 g/L
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Incubation duration:
2 h
Temp.:
35 °C
Remarks on result:
other: pH not specified.
Key result
Water solubility:
1.96 g/L
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Incubation duration:
2 h
Temp.:
45 °C
Remarks on result:
other: pH not specified.

Table 1. Solubility of naringin in water.

Temperature (ºC)

Solubility in water (g/L)

6

0.17

20

0.50

35

0.79

45

1.96

55

7.16

65

42.21

75

108.24

Conclusions:
The solubility of the test item at 20ºC was found to be ca. 0.5 g/L.
Executive summary:

The solubility of the test item was determined by adding an excess of the purified material to 150 ml of distilled water contained in a flask which was closed with a rubber stopper and immersed in a constant-temperature water bath. The flask was left in the bath 2 hours and was shaken every 15 minutes. At the end of 2 hours the solution in the flask was rapidly filtered, using a water-jacketed funnel. A measured volume of the clear filtrate was transferred to a weighed evaporating dish and evaporated to dryness over a steam bath, then dried at 110ºC, cooled, and weighed. The solubility of the test item was found to be 0.5 g/L at 20ºC, 0.79 g/L at 35ºC, and 1.9 g/L at 45ºC.

Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Reference:
Composition 1
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Data from peer reviewed handbook. No details provided on methods.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of method:
other: not specified.
Test material information:
Composition 1
Key result
Remarks on result:
other: Slightly soluble.
Conclusions:
According to peer reviewed handbook data, the test item is slightly soluble in water.
Executive summary:

Data from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 93d ed., the test item is slightly soluble in water.

Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1996.
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Reference:
Composition 1
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Data from peer reviewed handbook. No details provided on methods.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of method:
other: not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Key result
Water solubility:
1 g/L
Temp.:
40 °C
Remarks on result:
other: no further details provided.
Conclusions:
The Merck index reports the solubility of naringin as 1g/L at 40ºC.
Executive summary:

The Merck index reports the solubility of the test item as 1g/L at 40ºC, and as 100g/L at 75ºC (1 g dissolves in 10 ml water).

Description of key information

Weight of evidence. According to a study by Lauro (2007), similar to OECD 105, the water solubility of the test item is 1100mg/L at 25ºC. This finding is supported by previous studies by Pulley (1936), which report a solubility of 0.79 g/L at 35ºC and 0.5 g/L at 20ºC and peer reviewed handbook data, reporting a solubility of 1000 mg/L at 40ºC. Based on available data, the test item has a water solubility of 1100 mg/l in water at 25ºC.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Water solubility:
1 100 mg/L
at the temperature of:
25 °C

Additional information

Weight of evidence:

- In a study by Lauro MR (2007), the solubility of the test item was determined by a method similar to OECD 105 (flask method). An excess amount of test item was added to 50 ml of solvent; the samples were shaken and then stored at room temperature (25°C). After 3 days, the liquid phases were centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm, the supernatants were filtered with 0.45 μm filters and the concentration of dissolved test substance was determined spectrophotometrically and confirmed by HPLC. The solubility of the test item was found to be 1.1 g/L.

- In a study by Pulley (1936), the solubility of the test item was determined by adding an excess of test item to 150 ml of distilled water and immersed in a constant-temperature water bath, shaking every 15 minutes. After 2 hours, the solution filtered, and a measured volume of the clear filtrate was transferred to a weighed evaporating dish and evaporated to dryness over a steam bath, then dried at 110ºC, cooled, and weighed. The solubility of the test item was found to be 0.5 g/L at 20ºC, 0.79 g/L at 35ºC, and 1.9 g/L at 45ºC.

- Peer reviewed handbook data report similar results: The Merck index reports the solubility of the test item as 1g/L at 40ºC, and as 100g/L at 75ºC (1 g dissolves in 10 ml water). The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 93d ed. reports the test item as slightly soluble in water.