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EC number: 213-208-3
CAS number: 930-02-9
Based on the results of the experimental investigations as well as on the molecular weight the test item is considered to be bioavailable via oral and dermal route and potentially also via inhalation. Once systemic available the substance might distribute into the cells and intracellular concentration might be higher than extracellular concentration. 1-(vinyloxy)octadecane might be hydrolysed and metabolites are estimated to enter the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway followed by the TCA respiration pathway. Therefore, excretion of the presumed metabolites via exhalation is expected. However biliary excretion is expected for the unchanged test substance. Based on the high log Pow value bioaccumulation of the test substance cannot be excluded but is expected to be limited due to the presumed metabolism.
-(vinyloxy)octadecane is a colourless to yellow solid at room
temperature with a melting point of ~31 °C. It has a molecular weight of
296.54 g/mol, a density of 0.821 g/cm3(at
40 °C) and a log Pow value of 9 (25 °C). The substance has a vapour
pressure of 0.001 Pa (25 °C) and the solubility in water is low (< 0.1
mg/l at 25°C).
exposure route at room temperature is dermal as the vapour pressure at
25 °C is considered to be negligible and inhalation exposure is
In an acute
oral toxicity study in rats (BASF, 1988) the LD50was
determined to be >5000 mg/kg bw for male and female rats. Neither
mortality nor any clinical signs and pathological alterations were
observed. Due to the low vapour pressure at room temperature no acute
inhalation study was carried out. In an acute dermal toxicity study in
rats (BASF SE, 2011) no mortality occurred and the LD50was
determined to be >5000 mg/kg bw. Neither any clinical signs nor any
macroscopic pathologic abnormalities were observed. No dermal irritation
was noted at the site of application. However, in an acute dermal
irritation/corrosion study with rabbits (BASF, 1988) the application of
0.5 mL per animal of the liquefied test item revealed slight erythema
which were reversible within 7 days. In an acute eye irritation test,
slight conjunctiva redness was noted fully reversible within 72 hours
(BASF, 1988). Administration of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 % of the test item for
three consecutive days on the ear of mice revealed a statistically
significant and biologically relevant increase of DPM values and lymph
node weights compared to control group. Therefore, the substance is
considered to be a skin sensitiser.
combined repeated dose toxicity study with the
reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test with rats, 1
-(vinyloxy)octadecane was administered orally at concentrations of 0,
250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day (BASF SE, 2012). No clinical signs or
changes of general behaviour, body weights and food consumption
attributed to the test item were detected in any male or female animal
during the whole study. No treatment-related changes among hematological
parameters were observed. Cholesterol levels were increased in male and
female animals of all dosage groups but were considered to be not
adverse. A dose-dependent trend towards increased liver weights was
noted in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day males and females.
Treatment-related fatty change of hepatocytes characterized by vacuoles
of varying size was noted in many male and female animals of the mid and
high dose group correlating partly to light-brown discoloration observed
by gross examination. Centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was
observed particularly in male animals. No test item-related influence on
development of the F1 generation pubs were noted in all dose groups.
In a repeated dose toxicity study (OECD
408), 1 -(vinyloxy)octadecane was administered by gavage to groups of 10
male and 10 female Wistar rats at dose levels of 0 (test group 0), 50
(test group 1), 200 (test group 2) and 800 mg/kg bw/d (test group 3)
over a period of 3 months. With regard to clinical examinations, signs
of general systemic toxicity were not observed even at a dose level of
800 mg/kg bw/d. Regarding clinical pathology, in rats of both sexes of
test group 3 (800 mg/kg bw/d) marginally increased γ-glutamyl
transferase (GGT) activities and higher cholesterol levels were observed
reflecting an affection of the liver cells. Additionally, in females
total protein and globulin levels were increased, most probably due to a
greater synthesis of transport globulins by the liver cells. Globulin
and cholesterol levels were already increased in females of test group 2
(200 mg/kg bw/d). Regarding pathology, the liver was the target organ.
Males and females of test group 3 (800 mg/kg bw/d) revealed a diffuse
hepatocellular hypertrophy which correlated with the enlargement
observed by gross pathology in females and with the increased liver
weight in both sexes. Furthermore, hepatocytes with vacuoles were
detected histopathologically, which could be shown to be neutral fat
storage within the hepatocytes. This correlated with macroscopic finding
of light brown discoloration. For test group 3 (800 mg/kg bw/d) males
and females the hypertrophy and fatty change was regarded to be
treatment-related and adverse in combination with clinical pathology
findings. In test group 2 (200 mg/kg bw/d) only the centrilobular
hypertrophy in a single female and the mean liver weight increase were
regarded to be treatment-related and adverse, as also clinical pathology
parameters were changed in this test group. The fatty change occurred in
different animals than the one with hypertrophy. These animals did not
reveal other findings than the minimal fatty change, which was regarded
to be treatment-related but not adverse.All other findings occurred
either individually or were biologically equally distributed over
control and treatment groups. They were considered to be incidental or
spontaneous in origin and without any relation to treatment.
absorption of 1-(vinyloxy)octadecane is limited by its high
lipophilicity (log Pow >8) and its low water solubility. However,
pathological and histopathological findings in the liver after repeated
oral administration indicate that the compound becomes bioavailable to a
certain extend. Both, passive diffusion and/or active transport through
the cell membrane are considered to be possible mechanisms of absorption
from the gastrointestinal tract.
substance is solidified at room temperature and the vapour pressure of
the test item at 25 °C is estimated to be low. Therefore, inhalation of
dust or vapour is unlikely. However, if the substance becomes available
for inhalation, it might be taken up by micellular solubilisation to a
uptake of 1-(vinyloxy)octadecane into the stratum corneum and partition
from the stratum corneum into the epidermis is limited by the high log
Pow value and the low water solubility, respectively. Thus, absorption
across the skin is estimated to be low. However, since the available
LLNA revealed a skin sensitising effect, the substance has to penetrate
the skin to a certain extend. These results indicate skin penetration
after dermal application.
together, experimental data indicate bioavailability of the test
substance via oral, dermal and possibly also via inhalation route.
substance might distribute into the cells and intracellular
concentration might be higher than extracellular concentration
particularly in fatty tissues due to the high log Pow value. In the
available repeated dose toxicity studies the liver was identified as a
the high log Pow value bioaccumulation cannot be excluded but is
expected to be limited due to the presumed metabolism.
substance might be hydrolysed by formation of acetaldehyde and
octadecanol. Further oxidation could result in acetic acid and
octadecanal, subsequently oxidised to octadecanoic acid which in turn
may enter the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway followed by the citric
acid cycle (TCA) pathway.
no indications of genotoxicity of the substance and its metabolites from
the present Ames and cytogenetic test (BASF, 1989, 2012), and several
mutation assays in mammalian cells with three
different structure analogues (BASF, 1992, 1998, 2010). Thus,
1-(vinyloxy)octadecane and its metabolites are expected not to be
genotoxic and metabolic activation is unlikely to occur.
metabolites of 1-(vinyloxy)octadecane described above are estimated to
be oxidised to carbon dioxide within the TCA pathway and are therefore
expected to be excreted via exhalation. In case of the unchanged
substance biliary excretion is expected due to the molecular weight (~
300 g/mol) and the low water solubility.
the results of the experimental investigations as well as on the
molecular weight the substance is considered to be bioavailable via oral
and dermal route and potentially also via inhalation. Once systemic
available the substance might distribute into the cells and
intracellular concentration might be higher than extracellular
might be hydrolysed and metabolites are estimated to enter the
mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway followed by the TCA respiration
pathway. Therefore, excretion of the presumed metabolites via exhalation
is expected. However, biliary excretion is expected for the unchanged
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