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EC number: 233-520-3
CAS number: 10213-78-2
fatty amine ethoxylates are for the main fraction protonated under
ambient conditions. This means that they will sorb strongly to
negatively charged surfaces like glassware, soil and sediment
constituents. For three different soils soil/water distribution
coefficients (Kd values) were observed ranging from: 2025 to 4639 L/kg.
Biodegradation is considered to be the main removal mechanism of these
substances as they are readily biodegradable. Some ready
biodegradability tests may however been hampered by the biocidal
activity of these substances.
half-life in the different environmental compartments will influenced by
the bioavailability of the substances. No data is available for the
determination of the primary fatty amine ethoxylates in soil or
sediment. In absence of half-life data in these compartments these can
as a worst-case be estimated based on the readily biodegradability and
the sorption data as determined in a sorption desorption test.
an alternative also read-across from a similar substance may be applied.
For 14C hexadecylamine a half-life in three soils was measured according
to an OECD 307 test. Although this C16 amine is strongly sorbing to soil
(median Kp soil of 3875 L/kg at lowest measured concentration),
half-life’s of 8.14 to 8.98 days were observed at 20 °C. These values
can be recalculated (EUSES) to 12 °C a maximum half-life in soil of 16.9
days. As both primary alkyl amines and primary alkyl amine ethoxylates
(2EO) are readily biodegradable and structurally strongly related, it is
considered acceptable to use a half-life of 17 days in soil and sediment
for the primary fatty amine ethoxylates risk assessment as well.
Table below summarizes half-lives derived through default values and a
of degradation rate constants in various (eco) systems based the ready
biodegradability of primary fatty amine ethoxylates.
Surface water (fresh)
TGD default value
15 days half-life
Surface water (fresh) sediment
17 days half-life (aerobic)
50 days half-life
Marine water sediment
57 days half-life
17 days half-lifea
Degradation in sewage treatment plants
Determined in simulation test (OECD 303A)
>99.999% total removal of parent
99.83% removal by biodegradation
0.16% removal via sorption
of the fraction dissolved in the water phase is expected to in the order
of a few days.
fatty amine ethoxylates have a short predicted half-life in air but
because there are no important releases into the atmosphere and
volatilization is expected to be negligible, this removal mechanism is
thought to be of low relevance.
fatty amine ethoxylates do not contain hydrolysable covalent bonds.
Cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond under environmental conditions is
only possible with a carbonyl group adjacent to the nitrogen atom.
Degradation of primary fatty amine ethoxylates through hydrolysis is
therefore not considered.
photolysis of primary fatty amine ethoxylates in air/water/soil will not
occur, because it does not absorb UV radiation above 290 nm. Photo
transformation in air/water/soil is therefore assumed to be negligible.
measured BCF fish is available for the primary fatty amine ethoxylates.
OECD 305 tests are technically not feasible with these strongly sorbing
easily degradable substances. In addition is the route of exposure in a
standard OECD 305 test unrealistic for these substances because the
substance will either be sorbed or biodegraded. The bioaccumulation
potential of primary fatty amine ethoxylates was therefore assessed
based on a measured log Kow. As indicated before, primary fatty amine
ethoxylates are readily biodegradable and it is therefore unlikely that
they will accumulate in the food chain. Since there is a measured log
Kow value available this value is used to assess the bioaccumulation
valid measured log Kow values are however available as presented in the
Primary fatty amines ethoxylates
Measured log Kow
2,2'-(C12-18 evennumbered alkyl imino) diethanol
2,2'-(C16-18 (evennumbered) alkyl imino) diethanol
highest log Kow is observed for 2,2'-(C16-18 (evennumbered) alkyl imino)
diethanol (CAS no 1218787-30-4). For this product also the lowest CMC of
3.5 mg/L was observed. The measured log Kow value of 3.6 indicates a
moderate bioaccumulation potential for narcotic substances. For polar
narcotics like the primary fatty amine ethoxylates however there is only
limited information on the relationship between log Kow and BCF.
in vitro biotransformation of C12to C18alkyldiethanolamines
was therefore tested according to a slightly adapted Cellzdirect/Invitrogen
Hepatic Rainbow Trout S9 Incubation Protocol using testosterone as
results show that C12–
C18 alkyldiethanol amines are quickly metabolized.
summary of the mean observed biotransformation rates, the predicted
whole body metabolism rate (Kmet) and BioConcentration Factor
(BCF) are presented in the Table below. The Kmet and BCF
values were estimated using a calculation spreadsheet obtained from John
Nichols (USEPA, personal communication). The BCF is calculated assuming
reduction in bioavailability in the test is functionally identical to
the reduction in bioavailability in fish plasma (fu= 1).
Summary of data in relation to the bioaccumulation potential of alkyl
Alkyl chain length
using OECD 123*
Slope of log transformed substrate depletion curve**
Estimated Partitioning based BCF(L/kg)
BCF with biotransformation (L/kg)
-0.119 ± 0.034
-0.103 ± 0.017
-0.051 ± 0.012
-0.011 ± 0.005
2010a, b and c
** Negative values represent
the decrease of the test substance
observed rapid biotransformation of the C12 to C18 alkyldiethanol
amines demonstrates that it will be very unlikely that these substances
will accumulate in fish. This was confirmed by the calculated BCF values
which where all below the CLP threshold value of 500 L/kg. It is
therefore concluded that C12 to C18 alkyldiethanolamines
have a low bioaccumulation potential and that an in vivo evaluation
of the bioaccumulation potential by e.g. performing an OECD 305
bioaccumulation test is not expected to result in BCF values > 500 L/kg.
weight evidence of each of the fate points (log Kow, metabolism,
biodegradability, bioavailability, BCF model) of a substance separately
is limited but when considered together it is justified to concluded
that primary alkyl amine ethoxylates (2EO) will not accumulate in the
food chain and have a low bioaccumulation potential.
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