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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants:
18.1 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

From the database of chronic nickel toxicity to higher plants, there are 68 individual high quality NOEC/L(E) C10 values from 11 different species. When expressed as total soil Ni, these range from 11 mg/kg for Lycopersicon esculentum (Rotahmsted Research, 2005) to 1.127 mg Ni/kg for Hordeum vulgare (Rothamsted Research, 2005). Below are the accepted high quality studies for terrestrial plants used for derivation of the HC5 and terrestrial PNEC.

 

Key Study

(Terrestrial plants)

Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the terrestrial HC5

Species

Added NOEC or EC10 (mg/kg dw)

Total NOEC or EC10 (mg/kg dw)

Rothamsted Research, 2005

Hordeum vulgare

31-1101

32-1127

Lycopersicon esculentum

10-599

11-625

Willaert & Verloo, 1988

Spinach

10-100

13-120

Halstead et al., 1969

Avena sativa

43-453

57-467

Medicago sativa

34-383

48-397

Liang & Schoenau, 1995

Avena sativa

80

88

Raphanus sativus

80

88

Lactuca sativa

40

67

Dang et al., 1990

Allium cepa

46

60

Trigonella poenumgraceum

84

98

Frossard et al., 1989

Lolium perenne

110

129

Gupta et al., 1987

Lactuca sativa

18-422

34-443

De Haan et al., 1985

Avena sativa

16-66

18-93

Metwally & Rabie, 1989

Zea mays

19-119

59-173

There is some activity derived also from the presence of fluroide. However, the report issued by the Commission (SCHER 2010, Critical review of any new evidence on the hazard profile, health effects, and human exposure to fluoride and the fluoridating agents of drinking water) about the addition of fluoride in drinking water clearly states that "Exposure of environmental organisms to levels of fluoride as used in fluoridation of drinking waters are not expected to lead to unacceptable risks to the environment."

CONCLUSION: NOEC 11mg/Kg Ni2+ = 18.1 mg/Kg NiF2 = 31.6 mg/Kg