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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

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Freshwater Nickel:

From the database of chronic nickel toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, 113 individual EC10 or NOEC values for 15 different individual species were selected. Chronic data on invertebrates belonging to different taxonomic groups being cladoceran (79% of the data points), amphipods (0.9% of the data), insects (7% of the data), hydrozoans (0.9% of the data), rotifers (5% of the data) and amollusc (7% of the data). The NOEC/L(E)C10 varied between 1.4 μg/l for C. dubia (Wirtz et al., 2004) and 1193.3 μg/l for Chironomustentans (Stubblefield and Van Genderen 2007). It is noted that the invertebrate data are heavily dominated by data on cladocerans. These values can correspond for Nickel fluoride to 2.3 ug/L and 1966 ug/L.

 

Key Study (fresh water invertebrates)

Species

Endpoint

Values (ug/L)

Delebeeck et al., 2005

Daphnia magna

EC10

8.8-256

Kunh et al., 1989

Daphnia magna

NOEC

90

Munzinger, 1990

Daphnia magna

NOEC

40

Munzinger, 1994

Daphnia magna

NOEC

80

Keithly et al., 1994

Ceriodaphnia dubia

NOEC

3.4-5.8

Wirtz et al., 2004

Ceriodaphnia dubia

EC10

2.8-7.6

De Schamphelaere et al., 2006

Ceriodaphnia dubia

EC10

7.4-44.2

Nebeker et al., 1984

Clistorina magnifica

NOEC

66

Nebeker et al., 1986

Juga plicifera

NOEC

124

Santiago-Fandino, 1983

Hydra littoralis

NOEC

60

Keithly et al., 2004

Hyalella azteca

NOEC

29

Deleebeeck et al., 2006

Ceriodaphnia quadrangular

NOEC

2.0-12.7

Alona affinis

NOEC

25.0

Ceriodaphnia pulchella

NOEC

9.9-28.2

Simocephalus vetulus

NOEC

9.2-28.9

Stubblefield and Van Genderen, 2007

Lymnaea stagnalis

EC10

1.4 -19.5

Brachionus calyciflorus

EC10

498 -1379

Chironomustentas

EC10

404-782

 

Fresh water (Fluoride)

The lowestlevel for activity of fluoride is 4mg/L on Hyalella atzeca. This threshold is above the limit calculated for Nickel which is therefore the limiting factor

 

CONCLUSION 1.4ug/L Ni = 2.3ug/L NiF2 = 4.01ug/L NiF2*4H2O

 

Marine water (Nickel)

From the database of chronic nickel toxicity to marine invertebrates, EC10 values are reported for 10 species. EC10 values range from 22.9 μg Ni/L for reproduction of the polychaete,Neanthes arenaceodenata(Parametrix, 2007f) to 431 μg Ni/L for development of the bivalve,Crassostrea gigas(Parametrix 2007g). These values corridponds to 37.7 ug/l and 710 ug/l for Nickel Fluoride.

The table below represents theNOEC or EC10 values of high qualitycarried forward for derivation of HC5 and aquatic marine PNEC

 

 

  Key Study

(marine invertebrates)

Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the marine HC5

Species

Endpoint

Value (s) (ug/L)

Parametrix 2007d

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

EC10

335

Dendraster excentricus

EC10

191

Hunt et al., 2002

Mysidopsis intii

EC10

45.2

Haliotis rufescens

EC10

36.4

Gentile et al., 1982

Mysidopsis bahia

LOEC

141

Mysidopsis bahia

NOEC

 61

Parametrix 2007e

Mytilius galloprovincialis

EC10

269.7 (geomean)

Parametrix 2007f

Neanthes arenaceodentata

EC10

22.9

Parametrix 2007g

Crassostrea gigas

EC10

431

Novella et al., 2003

Paracentrotus lividus

EC10

89

Pagano, 2007

Paracentrotus lividus

EC10

217

 

Marine water (Nickel)

The lowest level for activity of fluoride is 4.15 mg/L on Grandidierella lutosa and lignorum an estarine amphipods. This threshold is above the limit calculated for Nickel which is therefore the limiting factor

 

CONCLUSION 22.9 ug/L Ni = 37.7 ug/L NiF2 = 65.7 ug/L NiF2*4H2O

 

FOR AN EXTENSIVE DISCUSSION, REFER TO THE NICKEL SULFATE DOSSIER WHICH IS BASED ON THE CONCLUSIONS EXPLAINED IN THE 2008/2009 EUROPEAN UNION EXISITING SUBSTANCE RISK ASSESSMENT OF NICKEL (EU RAR) (EEC 793/93)