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EC number: 700-960-7
CAS number: 68512-30-1
The bioaccumulation potential of the substance Oligomerisation and alkylation reaction products of 2-phenylpropene and phenol (OAPP, previously phenol, methylstyrenated, Novares LA 300) has been assessed in bioaccumulation/ bioconcentration studies in fish. The BCF of two individual constituents of OAPP, one methylstyrenated (cumyl) substituted phenol and a dimer of 2-phenylpropene were experimentally shown to be low to moderate. For dimers and trimers of 2-phenylpropene, BMF were determined. Conversion into BCF indicates that the BCF for dimers is between 2000 and 5000, while the BCF for trimers is above 5000. However, the conversion of BMF into BCF values show such a high variability/standard deviation due to uncertainties in conversion methods that the high BCF values resulting from conversion have to be considered as not very reliable. They are not suited for assessment and should be taken with caution.
Aquatic bioaccumulation of OAPP and
its constituents has been investigated in three
bioconcentration/bioaccumulation studies. The constituents
diphenylmethylpentene (4-methyl-2,4-diphenylpent-1-ene) (NITE 2002) and
cumylphenol (1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (NITE 1990) were subject of
valid bioconcentration flow-through fish tests (OECD 305). BCFs were
determined to be 2767/2320 L/kg fish ww (low/high exposure
concentration, lipid normalised) and 168 L/kg fish ww (high exposure
concentration) at steady state, respectively. In a bioaccumulation study
(dietary exposure, OECD 305-III) (Klix 2018), BMF factors could only be
determined for the non-phenolic constituents of OAPP. For the phenolic
components, the concentrations in fish during the depuration phase was
too low to be determined. A bioaccumulation potential was thus found
only for the non-phenolic constituents of OAPP. Lipid-based and
growth-corrected BMF values were 0.0737 and 0.1374 for dimers and
trimers, respectively. Conversion into BCF values by calculation of k1rate
constants using various methods resulted in average values of 2564 ±
1803 and 22338 ± 23353 (mean ± SD) for dimers and trimers, respectively.
Their variation is very high and the results differ very much, so that
especially the higher value is considered not to be reliable. This
estimation of k1 bears a high uncertainty indicated by the
high standard deviation.
Overall, BCF are below 3000 for about
75 % (w/w) of the test substance (phenolic constituents and dimers)
while for approx. 25 % (trimers) a reliable BCF value suited for
assessment is not yet available. An estimate derived from the
experimental BMF suggests that a BCF for trimers may be above 5000.
Based on currently available evidence a preliminary BCF for OAPP is set
at 3000 L/kg ww.
Vitellogenin concentration as a
marker for endocrine disruption
To determine the potential endocrine
disrupting properties of the test material, fish had been exposed via
food to 500 µg test material/g food for 14 days. The concentration of
vitellogenin was measured in fish blood at the beginning and after 7 and
14 days of exposure. Since there was high background interference in the
ELISA assay, the vitellogenin concentration cannot be expressed
quantitatively, but are given semi-quantitatively as absorbance values
only (Table 1). There was evidence of vitellogenin increase in male fish
in the test material treatments compared to the controls, while no
effect was seen in female fish. In the reference treatment, the male and
female fish showed significant increases in Vtg induction compared to
control after 14 days of exposure.
of Vitellogenin Induction after 14 days in the controls, reference
material and test material exposures.
Test Material Group
0 – 0.0760
0 – 1.83
1.68 – 2.55
2.45 – 3.11
0 – 3.07
0 – 2.16
Statistical difference to control, evaluated by ANOVA.
Mortality of test organisms/ -
Mortality and/or behavioural abnormalities of control:
No significant effects on mortality,
behaviour, feeding or morphology were observed in the test material or
control treatments. In the reference material treatments, a cumulative
mortality of 18.2 % was observed between days 10 and 42 of the whole
experiment with additional morphological effects (internal bleeding)
between day 11 and 13 of the uptake phase. The combination of the two
reference materials (HCB and 17β-estradiol) has not been tested before,
so interferences (positive or negative) between the two substances
cannot be ruled out.
Observations on body length and
The growth and weight of fish did not
change significantly throughout the experiment (both uptake and
depuration phase), and it did not differ between treatments.
The test material constituent
concentrations were confirmed in the feed and media. In the feed the
concentrations were between 90-100 % nominal.
Vitellogenin (Vtg) induction was
measured in fish exposed to test material for 14 days via a dietary
exposure, in combination with a dietary bioaccumulation study in fish
(OECD 305) [see also entry in IUCLID 5.3.1. The concentration of Vtg was
measured using an ELISA kit based on OECD TG 229. The results indicated
the test material induced Vtg production in male specimen, however, due
to background interferences in the assay, the results were regarded
Due to the nature of the test design,
i.e. a study combined with the determination of a bioaccumulation
potential (OECD 305, dietary version), only a single concentration was
tested, so firm quantitative effects data suitable for risk asseement
cannot be derived from this procedure.
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