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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

48-hour LC50s for daphnids range from 2.16 to 24.1 mg/l.
96-hour LC50s range from 0.8 to 17 mg/l for a range of estuarine and marine crustacea.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
2.16 mg/L

Additional information

The following discussion is partly quoted from the EU RAR on naphthalene [EU RAR]:

Data on the acute toxicity of naphthalene to aquatic invertebrates are available for freshwater and marine organisms (Table 1). 48-hour LC50s for freshwater invertebrates range from 2.16 to 24.1 mg/l. A 96-hour LC50 of 1 mg/l has been determined for daphnids. 96-hour LC50s range from 0.8 to 17 mg/l for a range of estuarine and marine crustacea. All of the data appear to be within the solubility of naphthalene. However, those based on nominal values do not take into account loss of the chemical during the test. These can be very variable depending on the test system employed. Saethre et al. (1984) noted that naphthalene was rapidly lost from solution with 80 to 90% lost over a 4-day period. The authors pointed out that this was probably due to evaporation from poorly sealed test beakers. Caldwell et al. (1977) found significant losses of 25 to 50% in flow-through systems. However, Ott et al. (1978) reported losses of less than 8% in a closed static system. Similar losses of 2 to 7% were found in flow-through systems over periods of up to 40 days (Moles et al., 1981; Edmisten and Bantle, 1982).

Table 1: Acute Toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

 Organism   Size/age   Stat/flow   Temp (°C)   Hardness
(mg/l) 
 PH   Parameter   Concentra-tion
(mg/l) 
 Reference 
 Freshwater
 Water flea
Daphnia magna 
 < 24 hour   stat     173   7.4-9.4   24h-LC50   17 n   LeBlanc, 1980 
 < 24 hour   stat     173   7.4-9.4   48h-LC50   8,6 n   LeBlanc, 1980 
   stat   22-26     8-8.6   24h-LC50   13.2 m   Crider et al., 1982 
   stat   22-26     8-8.6   48h-LC50   3.4 m   Crider et al., 1982 
   stat   19   134   7.6   48h-LC50   22.6 n   Eastmond et al., 1984 
 4-6 days   stat   21-25       48h-LC50   4.7   Abernethy et al., 1986 
 24 hour   stat   19.5       48h-LC50   24.1   Parkhurst, 1982 
   stat       ~6.5   48h-LC50   2.16 n   Millemann et al., 1984 
 4-6 days   stat   23.2         16.7 n   Bobra et al., 1983 
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
   stat   15   43   7.2   48h-LC50   2.92-3.89 n   Geiger and Buikema, 1982 
 1.9-2.1mm   stat       7.5   96h-LC50   1.0 n   Trucco et al., 1983 
Snail
Physa gyrina
 0.057 g   stat   19.5-20.5       48h-LC50   5.02 n   Millemann et al., 1984 
 Amphipod
Gammarus minus 
 adult   stat   21-24       48h-LC50   3.93 n   Millemann et al., 1984 
 Midge
Chironomus tentans 
 4th instar   stat   23-26       48h-LC50   2.81 n   Millemann et al., 1984 
 Estuarine and marine 
 Estuarine copepod
Eurytemora affinis 
 adult   stat   15   20 s     24h-LC50   3.798 n   Ott et al., 1978 
 Kelp shrimp
Eualis suckleyi 
 1 g   flow   6-6.9   seawater     96h-LC50   1.39 m   Rice and Thomas, 1989 
 Grass shrimp
Palaemonetes pugio 
 adult   stat   19-21   15 s   8.1   96h-LC5096h-LC50   2.6 2.35 n   Anderson et al., 1974 Tatem, 1975 
 Brown shrimp
Penaeus aztecus   
           96h-LC50   2.5   Anderson et al., 1974 
 Artemia   larvae   stat   19-21     8.5-8.7   24h-LC50   10.6 n   Abernethy et al., 1986 
 nauplii   stat         24h-LC50   3.19 m   Foster and Tullis, 1984 
Mysid
Neomysis americana
   
   stat$   15   seawater     96h-LC50   1.42 m   Hargreaves et al., 1982 
   stat$   25   "     96h-LC50   0.80 m   Hargreaves et al., 1982 
   flow   15   "     96h-LC50   1.28 m   Smith and Hargreaves, 1983 
   flow   25   "     96h-LC50   0.85 m   Smith and Hargreaves, 1983 
 Speckled prawn
Metapenaeus monoceros 
 juvenile   stat   30   17.5     48h-LC50   4.9 n   Deshmukh et al., 1985b 
 juvenile   stat   30   17.5     96h-LC50   4.2 n   Deshmukh et al., 1985b 
 Dungeness crab 
 Cancer magister  
 1st instar   stat$   13   30 s     96h-LC50   > 2.0 n   Caldwell et al., 1977 
               
 Crab 
Scylla serrata
 intermoult   stat   27-29   30-31 s   7.6-8.0   48h-LC50   20 n   Kulkarni and Masurekar, 1983 
 juvenile               Kulkarni and Masurekar, 1983 
 intermoult
juvenile 
 stat   27-29   30-31 s   7.6-8.0   96h-LC50   17 n   
 Blue crab 
Callinectes sapidus
 adult   flow   22-25   10-30 s     24h-LC50   2.4 m   Sabourin, 1982 
 adult   flow   22-25   10-30 s     48h-LC50   2.3 m   Sabourin, 1982 
Notes: stat - static conditions (water unchanged for duration of test) stat$ - static renewal conditions (water changed periodically) flow - flow-through conditions (naphthalene concentration continuously maintained) n - nominal concentration; m - measured concentration s - salinity (‰)[EU RAR]European Union Risk Assessment Report NAPHTHALENE [CAS No: 91-20-3; EINECS No: 202-049-5] RISK ASSESSMENT European Communities, 2003 [http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/]