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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Description of key information

A NOEC for collembolae reproduction in soil (56 mg/kg soil dw) generated in a 28d guideline-conform study with structure-related mono-methylnaphthalenes has been considered to be representative of naphthalene.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for soil dwelling arthropods:
56 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

In the only available study, acute and chronic toxicities of naphthalene were determined in a terrestrial insect, Acheta domesticus. The acute toxicity of naphthalene is low when administered orally or topically. Naphthalene in the food resulted in LD50 >15,000 µg/g. Topical application of naphthalene caused LD50 exceeding 580 µg/g. Nevertheless, naphthalene proved to be more toxic when ingested than when applied topically.

A reliable pre-guideline study using the structure-related methylnaphthalenes mixed into soil (technical isomer mixture) (BioChem 1992) resulted in a NOEC(28 d) of 56 mg/kg soil dw for reproduction of collemboles. This value may be adopted as a representative and provisional terrestrial NOEC for naphthalene.

According to Column 2 of REACH Annexes IX and X (standard information requirements for substances manufactured or imported in quantities of 100 tonnes per year or more and 1,000 tonnes per year or more) of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, studies on effects on terrestrial organisms do not need to be conducted if direct and indirect exposure of the soil compartment is unlikely and in the absence of toxicity data for soil organisms, the equilibrium partitioning method may be applied to assess the hazard to soil organisms.

The use pattern of naphthalene limits the risk for direct or indirect exposure of the soil compartment. Unlike pesticides e.g., naphthalene is not intentionally released into the environment. Production, handling and use, in most cases take place in closed systems with very low releases to the environment and with low probability of any significant release to the environment from products.