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Description of key information

Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and is presented.

 

Hydrocarbons, C9, aromatics:

Hydrocarbons, C9, Aromatics can be dermally absorbed, albeit at low levels. When dermally absorbed, C9 Aromatics are rapidly eliminated. 

 

Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 aromatics:

C10-C12 Aromatic fluids are poorly absorbed dermally with an estimated overall percutaneous absorption rate of approximately 2 µg/cm2/hr or 1% of the total fluid applied. When dermally absorbed, C10-C12 Aromatics are rapidly eliminated.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and is presented.

Hydrocarbons, C9, aromatics:

ABSORPTION

 

INHALATION EXPOSURE

 

Human Data

Exposure of human volunteers to trimethylbenzene vapour concentrations ranging from 5 -150 mg/m3 resulted in pulmonary retentions between 56-71% depending on the chemical species and the study (1, 2). Absorption into the blood stream of human volunteers exposed to a 25 ppm vapour of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene for a period of 4 hours was rapid, and resulted in a mean steady-state blood level of 0.85 micromol/l after 1-2 hours of exposure(3). Similar results were observed in human volunteers exposed to 100 ppm (26). Likewise, rapid pulmonary absorption of 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene in human volunteers has also been demonstrated (4, 5).

 

In vitro human blood:gas partition coefficients for the trimethylbenzenes are high, ranging from 40.8 to 69.3, depending on the chemical species (6).  Thus the pulmonary absorption of trimethylbenzenes is ventilation-limited.  This is consistent with the apparent high rate of uptake of the trimethylbenzenes from the alveoli into the blood and the apparent slow rate of equilibration of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene partial pressures in alveolar and inspired air in man (3).

 

Animal Data : The systemic absorption of inhaled trimethylbenzenes in rats is rapid with blood levels reaching a plateau after about 2 hours of exposure (7, 8).   The rate of uptake of inhaled 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene rats is 13.6 nmol×kg-1×min-1×ppm-1during nose-only exposure (9, 10). As in humans, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene has a relatively high blood:gas partition coefficient and its uptake is ventilation-limited (10).  

 

Summary: The available human and animal data imply that: a high proportion of inhaled C9 aromatic substances are available for absorption; that rapid systemic absorption of C9 aromatics following inhalation exposure can be expected; and that pulmonary absorption of the C9 aromatic substances is ventilation limited.

 

DERMAL EXPOSURE

 

Human Data: Attempts at dermal absorption determinations in humans with trimethylbenzenes has been difficult due to their acute primary skin irritancy (3). Slow, low-level skin penetration of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene through excised human skin in vitro, as measured using Franz static diffusion cells, can occur although steady state absorption conditions were not established following an 8 hour exposure period (11)

 

Animal Data: The mean in vitro rat dermal absorption flux of trimethylbenzenes present in a kerosene-based fuel (JP-8), was 1.25 micrograms/cm2/hour with a breakthrough time of 1 hour, as determined in Franz static diffusion cells.12 Similarly, in a study in which pigs were treated dermally with jet fuel for 1-4 days, and then skin removed and tested for dermal penetration under in vitro conditions, values of 0.49-1.01 micrograms/cm2/hour were reported for trimethylbenzene (27).

 

Summary: The available in vitro and animal data imply that C9 aromatics will be systemically absorbed following dermal exposure, albeit at low levels.

Hydrocarbons, C10 -C12 aromatics:

Discussion on absorption rate:

There have not been any dermal absorption studies of C10-C12 Aromatics, but there have been studies of some of the constituents, particularly naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes.  Due to the structural similarity of these molecules to other constituents of the C10-C12 Aromatics, it seems reasonable to assume that the solvents would have toxicokinetic properties similar to those of these constituents.  

 

ANIMAL DERMAL ABSORPTION DATA - IN VITRO DATA

 

Perfused porcine skin flaps were used to determine the absorption and disposition of naphthalene. Naphthalene absorption had a clear peak absorptive flux at less than 1h and the absorption was (mean +/- SEM; % dose) naphthalene (1.17 +/-0.07).  The area under the curve (AUC) was determined to be (mean +/- SEM; % dose-h/mL): naphthalene (0.0199 +/- 0.0020). In contrast, deposition within dosed skin showed the reverse pattern.

 

HUMAN DERMAL ABSORPTION DATA

 

SKIN PENETRATION: The slopes of the curves for aromatic compounds began to decrease at 120 min but did not reach zero. The apparent Kp was calculated for each volunteer and component of JP-8, assuming the absorbed compounds were restricted to the blood compartment in the body. The mean apparent Kp in decreasing order is naphthalene > 1-methyl naphthalene = 2-methyl naphthalene. A Student's t- test for comparison of the apparent Kp estimates for 1-methyl naphthalene and 2-methyl naphthalene showed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05).  The apparent permeability coefficients (cm/h) of aromatic hydrocarbons were determined to be: Naphthalene 5.3E-05; 1-Methyl naphthalene 2.9E-05; 2-Methyl naphthalene 3.2 E-05.

 

COMPARISON TO IN VITRO STUDIES: This study, conducted with human subjects, indicates that permeability coefficients estimated in vitro may overestimate the internal dose of various components of JP-8. To illustrate, the Kp values determined from rat skin, pig skin, and this study to estimate the internal dose of naphthalene: Mrat = 1.29 mg, Mpig = 0.53 mg, and Mhuman = 0.13 mg.  The Kp from rat skin overestimates human internal dose by a factor of 10, and the Kp from pig skin by a factor of 4.

 

MODEL: A mathematical model was developed to describe the diffusion coefficients (Dsc) of aromatic hydrocarbons. The diffusion coefficients (Dsc, cm2/min x 10^-8) of aromatic hydrocarbons were determined to be: Naphthalene 4.2+/-1.4; 1-Methyl naphthalene 4.6 +/-2.7; 2-Methyl naphthalene 4.5+/-2.6.

 

OVERVIEW OF PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION OF HYDROCARBON SOLVENTS

 

There are no studies of repeated dose toxicity of hydrocarbon solvents using the dermal route of administration. Accordingly, where it is necessary to calculate dermal DNELs, systemic data from studies utilizing other routes of administration, normally inhalation but also oral data, can be used in some situations. In accordance with ECHA guidance, read across from oral or inhalation data to dermal should account for differences in absorption where these exist (R8, example B.6). In fact, hydrocarbon solvents are poorly absorbed in most situations, in part because some are volatile and do not remain in contact with the skin for long periods of time and also because, due to their hydrophobic natures, do not partition well into aqueous environments and are poorly absorbed into the blood. 

 

If these differences in relative absorption are introduced into the DNEL calculations to calculate external doses, the DNELs based on systemic effects are highly inflated. This seems potentially misleading as it implies that substances have different intrinsic hazards when encountered by different routes whereas in fact the differences are due ultimately to differences in absorbed dose. Accordingly, it is our opinion that it would be more transparent if the differences in absorption were taken into account in the exposure equations rather than in DNEL derivation. 

 

Shown below is a compilation of percutaneous absorption information for a number of hydrocarbon solvent constituents covering carbon numbers ranging from C5 to C14 as well as examples of both aliphatic and aromatic constituents. The low molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-pentane, 2-methylpentane,

n-hexane, n-heptane, and n-octane) were tested by Tsuruta (1982) using rat skin in an in vitro model system. As shown (Table 1), the highest percutaneous absorption value was 2 ug/cm2/hr for pentane. Lower values (< ~ 1 ug/cm2/hr) were reported for aliphatic hydrocarbons ranging from hexane to octane. Several authors have assessed the percutaneous absorption of higher molecular weight aliphatic constituents including Baynes et al. (2000), Singh and Singh (2003), Muhammad et al. (2005), and Kim et al., (2006). The first three of these authors used porcine skin models and reported that, except for one anomalous result with tridecane, the percutaneous absorption values for aliphatic constituents ranging from nonane to tetradecane were well below 1 ug/cm2/hr. Rat and human skin are considered to be more permeable than human skin (Kim et al., 2006), so these numbers can be considered conservative. 

 

Kim et al. (2006) reported results of percutaneous absorption studies with human skin under in vivo conditions. In this case, the assessment method was based on tape stripping. The authors reported percutaneous absorption values ranging from 1 – 2 ug/kg/day for decane, undecane and dodecane. These values are higher than those reported by other authors, most likely because this technique measures absorption into the skin but not through the skin as was done in the studies listed above. Accordingly, it seems likely that these numbers are conservative as well.

 

With respect to aromatic hydrocarbons, most of the reported percutaneous absorption values [Baynes et al. (2000); Singh and Singh (2003); Mohammad et al. (2005); and Kim et al. (2006)] are less than 2 ug/cm2/day. The only exceptions are the values for naphthalene from Mohammad et al. (2005) which range from 4.2-6.6 ug/cm2/hr. 

 

After considering all of the above, it seems reasonable to assume apparent that across the entire range of hydrocarbon solvent constituents, percutaneous absorption values are less than 2 ug/cm2/day. Accordingly, when systemic dermal DNELs are calculated using route to route extrapolations, the values will not be corrected for differences in absorption. Rather, 2 ug/cm2/hr will be used as a common percutaneous absorption rate for all hydrocarbon solvents for which dermal exposure estimates are provided. 

           

Table 1: Summarized information on percutaneous absorption of hydrocarbon solvent constituents (C5-C16). 

 

Constituent

Molecular Weight

nmol/min/cm2

nmol/hr/cm2

µg/cm2/hr

Reference

Aliphatic Constituents

Pentane

72

0.52

31.2

2.2

Tsuruta et al. 1982

 

2-methyl pentane

86

0.02

1.2

0.1

Tsuruta et al. 1982

 

n-hexane

86

0.02

0.6

0.5

Tsuruta et al. 1982

 

n-heptane

100

0.02

1.2

0.1

Tsuruta et al. 1982

 

n-octane

114

0.08 x 10-3

0.005

0.0005

Tsuruta et al. 1982

 

Nonane

128

 

 

0.03

Muhammad et al., 2005

 

Nonane

 

 

 

0.38

McDougal et al., 1999

 

Decane

142

 

 

2

Kim et al., 2006

 

Decane

 

 

 

1.65

McDougal et al., 1999

 

Undecane

156

 

 

0.06-0.07

 

Muhammad et al., 2005

 

Undecane

 

 

 

1.0

Kim et al., 2006

 

Undecane

 

 

 

1.22

McDougal et al., 1999

 

Dodecane

170

 

 

0.02-0.04

Muhammad et al., 2005

 

Dodecane

 

 

 

2

Kim et al., 2006

 

Dodecane

 

 

 

0.3

Singh and Singh, 2003

 

Dodecane

 

 

 

0.51

McDougal et al., 1999

 

Dodecane

 

 

 

0.1

Baynes et al. 2000

 

Tridecane

184

 

 

0.00-0.02

Muhammad et al., 2005

 

Tridecane

 

 

 

2.5

Singh and Singh, 2003

 

Tridecane

 

 

 

0.33

McDougal et al., 1999

 

Tetradecane

198

 

 

0.3

Singh and Singh, 2003

 

Hexadecane

 

 

7.02 x 10E-3

0.00004

 

Singh and Singh, 2002

Aromatic Constituents

Trimethyl benzene

120

 

 

0.49-1.01

Muhammad et al., 2005

 

Trimethyl benzene

 

 

 

1.25

McDougal et al., 1999

 

Naphthalene

 

128

 

 

6.6-4.2

Muhammad et al., 2005

 

Naphthalene

 

 

 

0.5

Kim et al., 2006

 

Naphthalene

 

 

 

1.4

Singh and Singh 2002

 

Naphthalene

 

 

 

1.8

Baynes et al. (2000)

 

Naphthalene

 

 

 

1.0

McDougal et al., 1999

 

1 methyl naphthalene

142

 

 

0.5

Kim et al., 2006

 

Methyl naphthalene

 

 

 

1.55

McDougal et al., 1999

 

2-methyl naphthalene

 

 

 

0.5

Kim et al., 2006

 

2-methyl naphthalene

 

 

 

1.1

Singh and Singh, 2002

 

Dimethyl naphthalene

156

 

 

0.62-0.67

Muhammad et al., 2005

 

Dimethyl naphthalene

 

 

 

0.59

McDougal et al. 1999

 

Table 2. Estimated percentages of various hydrocarbon solvent constituents absorbed

 

Based on the information provided below, an overall estimate of 1% for all hydrocarbon solvents seems reasonable. 

 

Category

Representative Substance

Estimate of Percent absorption

Proposal for category

Reference for percent value

 

1

 

Trimethyl benzene

0.2%

0.2%

Based on data in Muhammad et al. (2005)

 

2

Naphthalene

1.2%

1.2%

Riviere et al. 1999

 

3

Dodecane (75%)

0.63%

0.5%

Riviere et al., 1999

 

TMB (25%)

0.2%

 

Muhammad et al., 2005

 

4

Hexadecane (70%)

0.18%

0.5%

Riviere et al., 1999

 

Naphthalene (30%)

1.2%

 

Riviere et al., 1999

 

5

Pentane

?

 

 

 

6

Hexane

?

 

 

 

7

Heptane

0.14%

0.14%

Singh et al. 2003

 

8

Dodecane

0.63%

0.63%

Riviere et al. 1999

 

 

 

 

 

9

Hexadecane

0.18%

0.18%

Riviere et al., 1999

 

Kim, D., Andersen, M., and Nylander-French (2006). Dermal absorption and penetration of jet fuel components in humans. Toxicology Letters 165:11-21.

 

Muhammad, F., N. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Baynes, and J. Riviere (2005). Effect of in vivo jet fuel exposure on subsequent in vitro dermal absorption of individual aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon fuel constituents. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A. 68:719-737.

 

Singh Somnath, Zhao Kaidi, Singh Jagdish. (2002). In vitro permeability and binding of hydrocarbons in pig ear and human abdominal skin. Drug and chemical toxicology, (2002 Feb) Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 83-92.

 

Singh, S. and Singh, J. (2003). Percutaneous absorption, biophysical and macroscopic barrier properties of porcine skin exposed to major components of JP-8 jet fuel. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 14:77-85.

 

Singh, S., Zhao, K., Singh, J. (2003). In vivo percutaneous absorption, skin barrier perturbation and irritation from JP-8 jet fuel components. Drug Chem. Toxicol 26:135-146.

 

McDougal, J., Pollard, D., Weisman, W., Garrett, C., and Miller, T. (2000). Assessment of skin absorption and penetration of JP-8 jet fuel and its components. Toxicological Sciences 25:247-255.

 

Muhammad, F., N. Monteiro-Riviere, R. Baynes, and J. Riviere (2005). Effect of in vivo jet fuel exposure on subsequent in vitro dermal absorption of individual aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon fuel constituents. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A. 68:719-737.

 

Riviere, J., Brooks, J., Monteiro-Riviere, N., Budsaba, K., and Smith, C. (1999). Dermal absorption and distribution of topically dosed jet fuels jet A, JP-8 andJP-8(100). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 160:60-75.

 

Tsuruta, H. et al. (1982). Percutaneous absorption of organic solvents III. On the penetration rates of hydrophobic solvents through the excised rat skin. Industrial Health 20:335-345.