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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.

 

Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics:

Genetic Toxicity in vitro - Bacterial reverse mutation assay (OECD TG 471)

Genetic Toxicity in vitro - In vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test (OECD TG 473)

Genetic Toxicity in vitro - In vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test (OECD TG 476)

Genetic Toxicity in vitro - In vitro Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay in Mammalian Cells (OECD TG 479) 

 

Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics:

Genetic Toxicity in vitro - Bacterial reverse mutation assay (OECD TG 471)

Genetic Toxicity in vitro - In vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test (OECD TG 473) - Read-Across from C9 Aromatics

Genetic Toxicity in vitro - In vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test (OECD TG 476) - Read-Across from C9 Aromatics

Genetic Toxicity in vitro - In vitro Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay in Mammalian Cells (OECD TG 479) - Read-Across from C9 Aromatics
Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
06/11/1997-01/13/1997
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP study done according to standard method.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
other: histidine and biotin requiring
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
other: histidine requiring
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Range finding: 8, 40, 200, 1000, 5000 µg/plate
Mutation Experiment 1 without metabolic activation: 0.5333, 2.67, 13.3, 66.7, 333.0 µg/plate
Mutation Experiment 1 with metabolic activation: 2.67, 8, 40, 200, 1000 µg/plate
Mutation Experiment 2 without metabolic activation: 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 µg/plate
Mutation Experiment 2 with metabolic activation, strains TA98 and TA100 initial treatments: 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 µg/plate
Mutation Experiment 2 with metabolic activation, strains TA1535, TA1537 and TA102 initial treatments: 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 µg/plate
Mutation Experiment 2 with metabolic activation, strains TA1535 and TA102 repeat treatments: 7.8125, 15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 µg/plate
Mutation Experiment 2 with metabolic activation, strain TA1535: 3.90625, 7.8125, 15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125 µg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
other: not applicable
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-nitrofluorene, sodium azide, 9-aminoacridine, gluteraldehyde, 2-aminoanthracene
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar (plate incorporation) - Platings were made by adding 0.1 ml bacterial culture, 0.1 ml test article solution, and 0.5 ml 10% S-9 mix or buffer to 2.5 ml molten agar at 46°C. The plating mixture was rapidly mixed and poured onto Minimal Davis agar plates. After setting, the plates were inverted and incubated for 3 days at 37°C in the dark. Plates were then examined for toxicity. In experiment 2, the test solution was reduced to 0.05 ml due to the toxicity of the solvent, DMSO.


DURATION
- Preincubation period: Experiment 2 - 1 hour
- Exposure duration: 3 days
- Expression time (cells in growth medium):
- Selection time (if incubation with a selection agent):
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells):

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: 3

OTHER: Colonies were counted using a Seescan Colony Counter or manually when automatic counts could not be obtained.
Evaluation criteria:
Mean control counts fell within normal ranges.
Positive controls induced clear increases in revertant numbers.
No more than 5% of the plates lost through contamination.
Dunnett's test gave a significant response (p <= 0.01), and the data set showed a significant dose-correlation.
The positive responses were reproducible.
Statistics:
Individual plate counts were averaged. Dunnett's test was used to calculate significant responses.
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
200, 1000, 5000 µg/plate in TA100
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

Mean revertant colonies (-S-9) - Experiment 1

Substance

Dose level (µg/plate)

TA98

TA100

TA1535

TA1537

TA102

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

DMSO

100 µl

28 ± 6

109 ± 6

19 ± 5

12 ± 3

271 ± 18

SHELLSOL

A

0.533

26 ± 6

101 ± 10

14 ± 2

10 ± 8

251 ± 10

2.67

31 ± 1

108 ± 10

14 ± 2

9 ± 3

255 ± 15

13.3

26 ± 6

98 ± 6

17 ± 1

10 ± 1

277 ± 4

66.7

24 ± 5

91 ± 14

18 ± 6

9 ± 2

214 ± 2

333 (V+Ppn)

21 ± 4

(V+Ppn)

86 ± 0

(V+Ppn)

13 ± 2

(V+Ppn)

6 ± 2

(S+Ppn)

184 ± 3

(S+Ppn)

Positive Controls

Compound

2NF

NaN3

NaN3

AAC

GLU

Dose Level

5 µg

2 µg

2 µg

50 µg

25 µg

Mean ± SD

754 ± 130

509 ± 29

312 ± 27

376 ± 27

435 ± 28

Mean Revertant Colonies (+S-9) - Experiment 1

Substance

Dose level (µg/plate)

TA98

TA100

TA1535

TA1537

TA102

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

DMSO

100 µl

32 ± 8

134 ± 9

17 ± 6

14 ± 5

318 ± 21

SHELLSOL

A

2.67

37 ± 5

143 ± 11

17 ± 7

11 ± 1

335 ± 45

8

41 ± 9

131 ± 7

21 ± 2

14 ± 3

315 ± 15

40

33 ± 6

133 ± 20

17 ± 3

15 ± 4

323 ± 12

200

34 ± 10 S

125 ± 2 S

23 ± 5

12 ± 2

275 ± 19

1000

31 ± 1 S

112 ± 6 S

15 ± 4 S

9 ± 2 S

252 ± 17 S

Positive Controls

Compound

AAN

AAN

-

-

-

Dose Level

5 µg

5 µg

-

-

-

Mean ± SD

925 ± 121

1226 ± 104

-

-

-

Mean Revertant Colonies (-S-9) - Experiment 2

Substance

Dose level (µg/plate)

TA98

TA100

TA1535

TA1537

TA102

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

DMSO

100 µl

29 ± 7

117 ± 7

22 ± 5

5 ± 3

331 ± 19

SHELLSOL

A

31.25

26 ± 6

131 ± 11

20 ± 7

10 ± 2

304 ± 6

62.5

30 ± 6

113 ± 7

20 ± 4

8 ± 2

276 ± 9

125

27 ± 5 S

113 ± 21 S

18 ± 3

10 ± 2

278 ± 28

250

16 ± 1 S

111 ± 19 S

16 ± 1 S

7 ± 2 S

180 ± 6 S

500

15 ± 2

M+Ppn+V

100 ± 19 M+Ppn+S/V

17 ± 6 M+S

 5 ± 2 S

199 ± 11 S/V

Positive Controls

Compound

2NF

NaN3

NaN3

AAC

GLU

Dose Level

5 µg

2 µg

2 µg

50 µg

25 µg

Mean ± SD

1004 ± 95

722 ± 15

438 ± 30

410 ± 112

595 ± 11

Mean Revertant Colonies (+S-9) Experiment 2

Substance

Dose level (µg/plate)

TA98

TA100

TA1535

TA1537

TA102

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

DMSO

100 µl

38 ± 4

140 ± 7

18 ± 5

7 ± 3

360 ± 19

SHELLSOL

A

3.90625

-

-

22 ± 2 M

-

-

7.8125

-

-

19 ± 2

10 ± 2

344 ± 13

12.5

36 ± 7

143 ± 9

-

-

-

15.625

-

-

12 ± 4 M

6 ± 3

323 ± 35

25

32 ± 9

133 ± 4

-

-

-

31.25

-

-

17 ± 5

9 ± 1

287 ± 66

50

34 ± 9

134 ± 3

-

-

-

62.5

-

-

17 ± 0

10 ± 1

307 ± 23

100

24 ± 3 S

133 ± 4 S

-

-

-

125

-

-

17 ± 5 S

4 ± 3 S

242 ± 15 S

200

26 ± 0 S

131 ± 4 S

-

-

-

250

-

-

-

5 ± 3 S

209 ± 27 S

Positive Controls

Compound

AAN

AAN

AAN

AAN

-

Dose Level

5 µg

5 µg

5 µg

5 µg

-

Mean ± SD

1109 ± 28

1045 ± 16

68 ± 3

63 ± 4

-

S - Slight thinning of background lawn

M - Plate counted manually

Ppn - Precipitation observed

V - Very thin background lawn

AAN - 2 -aminoanthracene

2NF - 2 -nitrofluorene

NaN3 - sodium azide

AAC - 9 -aminoacridine

GLU - gluteraldehyde

Summary of other bacterial mutagenicity studies.

End Point Study Reference  
REACH requirement IUCLID Section Study Name Data Waiving Waiving Justification Species Study Result Type Test Guideline/Qualifier Test Guideline/Guideline Test Guideline/Deviations Reliability Rational For Reliability GLP Compliance Test Materials/Identity Study Result Reference Type Reference Author Reference Year Reference Title Bibliographic Source Testing Laboratory Reference Report No. Owner Company Company Study No. Report Date Data access
8.4.1 In vitro bacterial mutagenicity 7.6.1 The mutagenic potential of high flash aromatic naptha Salmonella typhimurium experimental result According to  Ames, B.N., McCann, J., and Yamasaki, E. (1975).  Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Mutat. Res.31: 347-364. No 1 Well-documented journal article.  No Test material was specifically prepared to meet the composition requirements for High Flash Aromatic Naptha, Type 1 not mutagenic study report Schreiner, CA, Edwards, DA, McKee, RH, Swanson, M, Wong, ZA, Schmitt, S, Beatty, P 1989 The mutagenic potential of high flash aromatic naptha Cell Biology and Toxicology, Vol. 5, No. 2, 169-188 yes
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

It was concluded that the substance did not induce mutation in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA102 ) when tested under the conditions employed in this study, which included treatment at concentrations up to the lower limit of toxicity, both in the absence and in the presence of rat liver metabolic activation system (S-9).
Executive summary:

A bacterial reverse mutation assay was performed on five strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The study was performed both with (maximum concentration of 1000 microgram/mL) and without metabolic activation (maximum concentration of 500 microgram/mL). After 3 days of exposure to the test substance, the number of mean revertants per plate was calculated.

 

Toxicity was seen at the highest doses. Most notably in the strains TA1535, TA1537, and TA102 during Experiment 2. These strains were

retested at lower doses. There was no significant increase in the number of revertants in any of the test strains. There was a significant increase in the number of revertants in the positive control treatment.

 

The study is therefore valid, and the test substance is not mutagenic.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1998/11/05-1999/01/25
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: According to OECD 471 guidelines. GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 liver fractions from Aroclor exposed rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Tests (done in triplicate) with and without Metabolic Activation: 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 ug/plate
Positive controls:
TA 1535 (S9-: sodium azide 1.0 ug/plate) (S9+: 2-aminoanthracene: 2.0 ug/plate)
TA 1537 (S9-: 9-aminoacridine 80 ug/plate) (S9+: benzo(a)pyrene: 4.0 ug/plate)
TA 98 (S9-: 2-nitrofluorene 2.0 ug/plate) (S9+: 2-aminoanthracene: 2.0 ug/plate)
TA 100 (S9-: sodium azide 1.0 ug/plate) (S9+: 2-aminoanthracene: 2.0 ug/plate)
TA102 (S9-: glutaraldehyde 25 ug/plate)
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
non treated
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: See Test Concentrations
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar
DURATION
- Exposure duration: 48 hours


NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS:
- triplicate

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: reduction in the number of revertants and/or clearing of the background lawn of bacterial growth
Evaluation criteria:
The mutagenicity study is considered valid if the mean colony counts of the control values of the strains are within acceptable ranges, if the positive controls meet the criteria for a positive response and if no more than 5% of the plates are lost through contamination or other unforeseen events.

A test substance is considered to be positive in the bacterial gene mutation test if the mean number of revertant colonies on the test plates increases in a concentration-related manner and/or if a reproducible, two-fold or more increase is observed compared to that on the negative control plates.

A test substance is considered negative in the bacterial gene mutation test if it produces neither a dose-related increase in the mean number of revertant colonies nor a reproducible positive response at any of the test points.

Positive results from the bacterial reverse mutation test indicate that a substance induces point mutations by base substitution for frameshifts in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium. Negative results indicate that under the test conditions, the test substance in not mutagenic.
Statistics:
The mean plate count and standard deviation for each dose point were determined. Any test value that was equal to or greater than two times the mean value of the concurrent vehicle control was considered to be a positive dose.
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
Toxicity was observed at doses above 200 ug/plate with and without S9.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

In all cases, Shellsol AB did not induce any significant changes in the number of revertant colonies. It is concluded in this study that Shellsol AB is not a mutagenic agent.
Executive summary:

Shellsol AB was examined for mutagenic activity in the bacterial reverse mutation test using histidine-requiring Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, 1537, 98, 102,and 100 in the absence and presence of a liver S9 fraction for metabolic activation. Concentrations above 200 µg/plate were found to be cytotoxic and so the test was performed in triplicate using doses of 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 µg/plate. In all cases, Shellsol AB did not induce any significant changes in the number of revertant colonies.  

 

It is concluded in this study that Shellsol AB is not a mutagenic agent.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: According to OECD 471 guidelines. GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 liver fractions from Aroclor exposed rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Tests (done in triplicate) with and without Metabolic Activation: 0, 32, 63, 125, 250, 500 ug/plate
Positive controls:
TA 1535 (S9-: sodium azide 1.0 ug/plate) (S9+: 2-aminoanthracene: 2.0 ug/plate)
TA 1537 (S9-: 9-aminoacridine 80 ug/plate) (S9+: benzo(a)pyrene: 4.0 ug/plate)
TA 98 (S9-: 2-nitrofluorene 2.0 ug/plate) (S9+: 2-aminoanthracene: 2.0 ug/plate)
TA 100 (S9-: sodium azide 1.0 ug/plate) (S9+: 2-aminoanthracene: 2.0 ug/plate)
WP2 uvr A (S9-: N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea 100 ug/plate) (S9+: 2-aminoanthracene: 80 ug/plate)
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
no
True negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
non treated
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: See Test Concentrations
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar
DURATION
- Exposure duration: 48 hours


NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS:
- triplicate

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: reduction in the number of revertants and/or clearing of the background lawn of bacterial growth
Evaluation criteria:
The mutagenicity study is considered valid if the mean colony counts of the control values of the strains are within acceptable ranges, if the positive controls meet the criteria for a positive response and if no more than 5% of the plates are lost through contamination or other unforeseen events.

A test substance is considered to be positive in the bacterial gene mutation test if the mean number of revertant colonies on the test plates increase in a concentration-related manner and/or if a reproducible two-fold or more increase is observed compared to that on the negative control plates.

A test substance is considered negative in the bacterial gene mutation test if it produces neither a dose-related increase in the mean number of revertant colonies nor a reproducible positive response at any of the test points.

Positive results from the bacterial reverse mutation test indicate that a substance induces point mutations by base substitution or frameshifts in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium. Negative results indicate that under the test conditions, the test substance is not mutagenic.
Statistics:
The mean plate count and standard deviation for each dose point were determined. Any test value that was equal to or greater than two times the mean value of the concurrent vehicle control was considered to be a positive dose.
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
Toxicity pretest was performed from doses of 556, 1667, 5000 ug/plate using all strains. Toxicity was observed at all of these doses and in phase 2 of the study, the doses were reduced to 0, 32, 63, 125, 250, 500 ug/plate.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

In all cases, the test material did not induce any significant changes in the number of revertant colonies. It is concluded in this study that the test material is not a mutagenic agent and is not classified under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labeling, and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) or under the Directive 67/518/EEC for dangerous substances and Directive 1999/45/EC for preparations.
Executive summary:

Test material was examined for mutagenic activity in the bacterial reverse mutation test using histidine-requiring Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, 1537, 98, and 100, and theE. colistrain WP2 uvr A in the absence and presence of a liver S9 fraction for metabolic activation. Concentrations above 500 µg/plate were found to be cytotoxic and so the test was performed in triplicate using doses of 0, 32, 63, 125, 250, 500 µg/plate. 

 

In all cases, the test material did not induce any significant changes in the number of revertant colonies.  

 

It is concluded in this study that the test material is not a mutagenic agent and is not classified under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labelling, and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).  

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1991/01/28-1991/03/07
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: According to OECD 471 guidelines. GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Target gene:
Not applicable
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1538
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 liver fractions from Aroclor exposed rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Tests (done in triplicate) with and without Metabolic Activation: 0 (DMSO or Acetone), 3.2, 10, 32, 100, 320 ug/plate
Vehicle control: 0.1 ml/plate DMSO (positive controls) or 0.1 ml/plate acetone (test material)
Positive controls: 5ug/plate 2AA, 10ug/plate MNNG, 100ug/plate 9AA, 5ug/plate 2NF
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: DMSO/ acetone
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: Positive controls dissolved into DMSO, Test substance soluble in acetone
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
0.1 ml/plate DMSO; 0.1 ml/plate Acetone
True negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
non treated
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: TA 1537 (+S9 2-aminoanthracene) TA 1537 (-S9 9-aminoacridine); TA 98 (-S9 2-nitrofluorene) (+S9 2-aminoanthracene); TA100 (-S9 MNNG) (+S9 2-aminoanthracene); TA1535 (-S9 MNNG) (+S9 2-aminoanthracene); TA138(-S9 2-Nitrofluorene) (+S9 2-aminoanthracene)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar
DURATION
- Exposure duration: 48 hours


NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS:
- triplicate

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: reduction in the number of revertants and/or clearing of the background lawn of bacterial growth
Evaluation criteria:
The mutagenicity study is considered valid if the mean colony counts of the control values of the strains are within acceptable ranges, if the positive controls meet the criteria for a positive response and if no more than 5% of the plates are lost through contamination or other unforeseen events.

A test substance is considered to be positive in the bacterial gene mutation test if the mean number of revertant colonies on the test plates increases in a concentration-related manner and/or if a reproducible two-fold or more increase is observed compared to that on the negative control plates.

A test substance is considered negative in the bacterial gene mutation test if it produces neither a dose-related increase in the mean number of revertant colonies nor a reproducible positive response at any of the test points.

Positive results from the bacterial reverse mutation test indicate that a substance induces point mutations by base substitution for frameshifts in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium. Negative results indicate that under the test conditions, the test substance is not mutagenic.
Statistics:
The mean plate count and standard deviation for each dose point were determined. Any test value that was equal to or greater than two times the mean value of the concurrent vehicle control was considered to be a positive dose.
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity nor precipitates, but tested up to recommended limit concentrations
Remarks:
not cytotoxic up to 10,000ug/plate
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
Toxicity pretest was performed from doses of 1 to 10000ug/plate using TA98. Toxicity was observed and a maximum dose of 320 ug/plate was selected.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

In all cases, MRD-90-884 did not induce any significant changes in the number of revertant colonies. It is concluded in this study that MRD-90-884 is not a mutagenic agent and is not classified under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labeling, and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) or under the Directive 67/518/EEC for dangerous substances and Directive 1999/45/EC for preparations
Executive summary:

MRD-90-884 was examined for mutagenic activity in the bacterial reverse mutation test using histidine-requiring Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, 1537, 1538, 98, and 100 in the absence and presence of a liver S9 fraction for metabolic activation. Concentrations above 320 µg/plate were found to be cytotoxic and so the test was performed in triplicate using doses of 0, 3.2, 10, 32, 100, 320 µg/plate. In all cases, MRD-90-884 did not induce any significant changes in the number of revertant colonies.

 

It is concluded in this study that MRD-90-884 is not a mutagenic agent and is not classified under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labelling, and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).

 

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable well-documented publication which meets basic scientific principles.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 476 (In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method was according to:
Hsie, AW, Brimer, PA, Mitchell, TJ, and Gosslee, DG. (1975) Dose-response relationship for ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations at the hypoxyanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Somat. Cell Genet. 1:247-261
Hsie, AW, Casciano, DA, Couch, DB, Krahn, DF, O'Neill, JP, and Whitfield, BL. (1981). The use of Chinese hamster ovary cells to quantify specific locus mutation and to determine mutagenicity of chemicals. Mutation Res. 86:193-214.
Myhr, BC and DiPaolo, JA. (1978). Mutagenesis of Chinese hamster cells in vitro by combination treatments with methyl methanosulfonate and N-acetoxy-2-acetylamino-fluorene. Cancer Res. 38: 2539-2543.
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
mammalian cell gene mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
CHO-K1-BH4 clone
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 from livers of aroclor-induced Sprague-Dawley rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.1, 0.13 µl/ml without metabolic activation
0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.13, 0.16, 0.2 µl/ml with metabolic activation
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
DMSO 10 µl/m
True negative controls:
other: not applicable
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: methylmethanesulfonate at 15 and 20 µl/ml, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine at 50 µl/ml
Remarks:
without metabolic activation
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
10 µl/ml DMSO
True negative controls:
other: not applicable
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
3-methylcholanthrene
Remarks:
with metabolic activation Migrated to IUCLID6: 5 µl/ml
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in suspension

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 4 hrs
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): 7 days
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells): 14 days

SELECTION AGENT (mutation assays): 4 micrograms/ml 6-thioguanine
Evaluation criteria:
Treatment groups were evaulated for relative survival, relative population growth, absolute cloning efficiency, and mutation frequency.
Statistics:
Kastenbaum, MA, Bowman, KO. (1970). Tables for determining the statistical significance of mutation frequencies. Mutat. Res. 9: 527-549.
Key result
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
Cytotoxic at concentrations =>0.07 µl/ml
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
There was no evidence of mutagenicity as compared to controls.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

CHO/HGPRT Forward Mutation Suspension Assay without Metabolic Activation

Mean Colony Number

Relative Population Growth (%)

Mutant Frequency in 10-6 units

DMSO

202.7 ± 7.6

111.0

1.0

DMSO

190.0 ±17.8

89.0

2.2

5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine

161.3 ±11.2

114.1

14.0

Methyl methanesulfonate 15 µl/ml

83.0 ±7.0

63.5

59.2

Methyl methanesulfonate 20 µl/ml

41.0 ±7.2

38.3

59.4

0.01 µl/ml

185.0 ±10.6

176.6

1.1

0.02 µl/ml

204.7± 1.5

148.6

0.0

0.04 µl/ml

204.3 ±2.5

147.5

1.9

0.06 µl/ml

202.7± 20.5

107.5

0.6

0.07 µl/ml

77.3 ±7.0

35.2

1.4

0.08 µl/ml

5.7 ±1.5

10.7

0.9

0.1 µl/ml

0.0± 0.0

ND

ND

0.13 µl/ml

0.0 ±0.0

ND

ND

CHO/HGPRT Forward Mutation Suspension Assay with Metabolic Activation

Mean Colony Number

Relative Population Growth (%)

Mutant Frequency in 10-6 units

DMSO

203.7 ± 16.9

90.5

0.9

DMSO

201.0 ± 12.5

109.5

4.4

3-methylcholanthene

201.0 ± 7.8

77.1

161.3

0.02 µl/ml

185.3 ± 3.5

119.7

2.6

0.04 µl/ml

205.3 ± 21.1

111.7

3.4

0.06 µl/ml

196.7 ± 22.0

110.0

3.4

0.07 µl/ml

3.3 ± 1.5

4.0

1.3

0.08 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

0.1 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

0.13 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

0.16 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

0.2 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

Chromosome Aberrations in CHO Cells Exposed to High-Flash Aromatic Naphtha

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test material is not mutagenic, however, it is cytotoxic at concentrations of 0.07 µL/mL or above.
Executive summary:

A mammalian cell gene mutation assay was performed on Chinese hamster ovary cells to assess the mutagenicity of high flash aromatic naphtha to mammalian cells. The test was performed both with (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.13, 0.16, 0.2 microliters/mL) and without (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.1, 0.13 microliters/mL) metabolic activation. Cells were then examined for mutation frequency.

Only positive controls showed a significant increase in mutation frequency. No increase in mutation frequency was seen at any concentration either with or without metabolic activation. An analysis of relative population growth showed a reduction in population growth to 35.2% or greater of negative controls at exposures to concentrations or 0.07 microliters/mL or above. The test substance is therefore not mutagenic, however, it is cytotoxic at concentrations of 0.07 µL/mL or above.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1989
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Source of data is from peer reviewed literature. Acceptable well-documented study report which meets basic scientific principles: GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 476 (In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method was according to:
Hsie, AW, Brimer, PA, Mitchell, TJ, and Gosslee, DG. (1975) Dose-response relationship for ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations at the hypoxyanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus in Chinese hamster overy cells. Somat. Cell Genet. 1:247-261
Hsie, AW, Casciano, DA, Couch, DB, Krahn, DF, O'Neill, JP, and Whitfield, BL. (1981). The use of Chinese hamster ovary cells to quantify specific locus mutation and to determine mutagenicity of chemicals. Mutation Res. 86:193-214.
Myhr, BC and DiPaolo, JA. (1978). Mutagenesis of Chinese hamster cells in vitro by combination treatments with methyl methanosulfonate and N-acetoxy-2-acetylamino-fluorene. Cancer Res. 38: 2539-2543.
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
mammalian cell gene mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
CHO-K1-BH4 clone
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 from livers of aroclor-induced Sprague-Dawley rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.1, 0.13 μl/ml without metabolic activation
0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.13, 0.16, 0.2 μl/ml with metabolic activation
Vehicle / solvent:
DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
DMSO 10 μl/ml
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: methylmethanesulfonate at 15 and 20 μl/ml, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuradine at 50 μl/ml, 3-methylcholanthrene 5 μl/ml
Remarks:
without metabolic activation
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in suspension

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 4 hrs
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): 7 days
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells): 14 days

SELECTION AGENT (mutation assays): 4 micrograms/ml 6-thioguanine
Evaluation criteria:
Treatment groups were evaulated for relative survival, relative population growth, absolute cloning efficiency, and mutation frequency.
Statistics:
Kastenbaum, MA, Bowman, KO. (1970). Tables for determining the statistical significance of mutation frequencies. Mutat. Res. 9: 527-549.
Key result
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
Cytotoxic at concentrations =>0.1 microliters/ml
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
not applicable
Additional information on results:
There was no evidence of mutagenicity as compared to controls.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

CHO/HGPRT Forward Mutation Suspension Assay without Metabolic Activation

 

Mean Colony Number

Relative Population Growth (%)

Mutant Frequency in 10-6 units

DMSO

202.7 ± 7.6

111.0

1.0

DMSO

190.0 ±17.8

89.0

2.2

5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine

161.3 ±11.2

114.1

14.0

Methyl methanesulfonate 15 µl/ml

83.0 ±7.0

63.5

59.2

Methyl methanesulfonate 20 µl/ml



41.0 ±7.2

38.3

59.4

0.01 µl/ml

185.0 ±10.6

176.6

1.1

0.02 µl/ml

204.7± 1.5

148.6

0.0

0.04 µl/ml

204.3 ±2.5

147.5

1.9

0.06 µl/ml

202.7± 20.5

107.5

0.6

0.07 µl/ml

77.3 ±7.0

35.2

1.4

0.08 µl/ml

5.7 ±1.5

10.7

0.9

0.1 µl/ml

0.0± 0.0

ND

ND

0.13 µl/ml

0.0 ±0.0

ND

ND

CHO/HGPRT Forward Mutation Suspension Assay with Metabolic Activation

 

Mean Colony Number

Relative Population Growth (%)

Mutant Frequency in 10-6 units

DMSO

203.7 ± 16.9

90.5

0.9

DMSO

201.0 ± 12.5

109.5

4.4

3-methylcholanthene

201.0 ± 7.8

77.1

161.3

0.02 µl/ml

185.3 ± 3.5

119.7

2.6

0.04 µl/ml

205.3 ± 21.1

111.7

3.4

0.06 µl/ml

196.7 ± 22.0

110.0

3.4

0.07 µl/ml

3.3 ± 1.5

4.0

1.3

0.08 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

0.1 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

0.13 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

0.16 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

0.2 µl/ml

0.0 ± 0.0

ND

ND

 

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test material is not mutagenic, however, it is cytotoxic at concentrations of 0.1 μL/mL or above.
Executive summary:

The test material is not mutagenic, however, it is cytotoxic at concentrations of 0.1 μL/mL or above.

Endpoint:
in vitro cytogenicity / chromosome aberration study in mammalian cells
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1989
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable well-documented publication which meets basic scientific principles.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 473 (In Vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test
Species / strain / cell type:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
CHO-K1-BH4 clone
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 from livers of aroclor-induced Sprague-Dawley rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
15.0, 30.1, 45.0, 60.0, 75.0, 90.0 µg/ml without metabolic activation
20.0, 25.0, 37.5, 40.1, 50.0, 60.1, 70.0, 80.2 µg/ml with metabolic activation
Vehicle / solvent:
DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
DMSO
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
other: not applicable
True negative controls:
other: not applicable
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: MMC (unactivated cultures) and CP (metabolic activation)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in suspension

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 7 hrs (w/o activation); 2.5 hrs (w/ activation)
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): After 10 hour incubations, metaphase cells were collected by mitotic shake off
- Fixation: methanol:glacial acetic acid (3:1), stained with 5% Giemsa (pH 6.8)

Positive Controls: MMC (unactivated cultures) and CP (metabolic activation)
Evaluation criteria:
Treatment groups were evaulated for overall chromosomal aberration frequency, the percentage of cells with aberrations, the percentage of cells with more than one aberration, the presence or absence of a dose-response and the complexity of the aberrations.
Statistics:
Fisher’s exact test with an adjustment for multiple comparisons to compare the percentage of cells with aberrations in each treatment group with the results from the controls (Sokal and Rohlf, 1981).
Key result
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
cytotoxic at 90.2 µg/mL with metabolic activation
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
There were no increases in chromosomal aberrations at any concentration level tested in either the presence or absence of metabolic activation.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test material is not clastogenic, however, it is cytotoxic at concentrations of 80.2 µg/mL or above.
Executive summary:

This study assessed the potential of high flash aromatic naphtha to cause chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Cells were exposed to concentrations of 15.0, 30.1, 45.0, 60.0, 75.0, 90.0 micrograms/mL without metabolic activation and 20.0, 25.0, 37.5, 40.1, 50.0, 60.1, 70.0, 80.2 micrograms/mL with metabolic activation. Cells were than evaluated for chromosomal aberration frequency, the percentage of cells with aberrations, the percentage of cells with more than one aberration, the presence or absence of a dose-response, and the complexity of the aberrations.

There were no increases in chromosomal aberrations at any concentration level tested in either the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The test material is not clastogenic, however, it is cytotoxic at concentrations of 80.2 micrograms/mL or above.

Endpoint:
in vitro DNA damage and/or repair study
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1989
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable well-documented publication which meets basic scientific principles.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 479 (Genetic Toxicology: In Vitro Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay in Mammalian Cells)
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
sister chromatid exchange assay in mammalian cells
Species / strain / cell type:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 from livers of aroclor-induced Sprague-Dawley rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
2.0, 6.67, 20.0, 35.0, 50.1, 66.7 µg/ml without metabolic activation
0.667, 2.0, 6.67, 15.0, 20.0, 35.0, 50.1 µg/ml with metabolic activation
Vehicle / solvent:
DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
DMSO
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
other: not applicable
True negative controls:
other: not applicable
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: MMC (unactivated cultures) and CP (metabolic activation)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in suspension

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 22.5 hrs (w/o activation); 2 hrs (w/ activation)
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): After 23 hour incubation with Brdu), metaphase cells were collected by mitotic shake off

Positive Controls: mitomycin C (MMC, unactivated cultures) and cyclophosphamide (CP, metabolic activation)
Evaluation criteria:
Total sister chromatid exchange (SCE), SCE per chromosome, SCE per cell in the M2 stage of mitosis, percentage of cells in the M1, M1+, or M2 stages of cell cycle.
Statistics:
Evaluation of mutagenic responses was based on statistical comparisons of SCE frequencies in the C9 treated cultures with those in the negative (solvent) control cultures (Bancroft 1957, Hollander and Wolfe 1973).
Key result
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
cytotoxic at 90.2 µg/mL with metabolic activation
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
There were no increases in SCE at any concentration level tested in either the presence or absence of metabolic activation. Cell-cycle delay was not observed at concentration levels below 66.7 µg/mL (w/o activation) or below 50.1 µg/mL (w/ activation). The positive controls produced significant increases in the % SCE as compared to their respective negative controls.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

Dose Cells # Chromosomes # SCE SCE  SCE/Cell
  ug/mL Scored     Chromosomes (Mean +/- SE)
Assay #1: w/o metabolic activation            
Negative Control - 50 1044 443 0.42 8.86 (.36)
Solvent Control 11 50 1038 536 0.52 10.72 (.45)
Positive Control: MMC 0.005 20 420 570 1.36 28.5 (1.13)
C9 Aromatics 2 50 1037 530 0.51 10.6 (.43)
  6.67 50 1038 474 0.46 9.48 (.51)
  20 50 1044 480 0.46 9.6 (.44)
  66.67 50 1038 524 0.5 10.48 (.39)
  200 Toxic - - - -
             
Assay #2: w/o metabolic activation            
Negative Control - 50 1038 399 0.38 7.98 (.38)
Solvent Control 11 50 1047 432 0.41 8.64 (.5)
Positive Control: MMC 0.005 20 417 547 1.31 27.35 (1.49)
C9 Aromatics 35 50 1043 428 0.41 8.56 (.49)
  50.1 50 1042 461 0.44 9.22 (.36)
  66.7 50 1041 443 0.43 8.86 (.44)
  90.1 50 Toxic - - -
             
             
             
  Dose Cells # Chromosomes # SCE SCE  SCE/Cell
  ug/mL Scored     Chromosomes (Mean +/- SE)
Assay #1: w/ metabolic activation            
Negative Control - 50 1037 443 0.43 8.86 (.43)
Solvent Control 11 50 1032 430 0.42 8.60 (.49)
Positive Control: MMC 1.5 20 415 379 0.91 18.95 (1.20)
C9 Aromatics 0.667 50 1038 449 0.43 8.98 (.34)
  2 50 1034 484 0.47 9.68 (.43)
  6.67 50 1045 474 0.45 9.48 (.46)
  20 50 1040 441 0.42 8.82 (.45)
  66.67 50 Toxic - - -
             
Assay #2: w/ metabolic activation            
Negative Control - 50 1048 417 0.4 8.34 (.43)
Solvent Control 11 50 1046 398 0.38 7.96 (.38)
Positive Control: MMC 1.5 20 418 457 1.09 22.85 (.91)
C9 Aromatics 15 50 1043 372 0.36 7.44 (.40)
  20 50 1048 444 0.42 8.88 (0.44)
  35 50 1055 400 0.38 8.00 (.46)
  50.1 50 1047 420 0.4 8.4 (.48)
  66.7 50 Toxic - - -
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test material did not cause sister chromatid exchange in CHO cells, however it is cytotoxic at the highest concentrations tested.
Executive summary:

The study examined the potential of high flash aromatic naphtha to cause sister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. CHO cells were exposed to test substance concentrations of 2.0, 6.67, 20.0, 35.0, 50.1, 66.7 micrograms/mL without metabolic activation, and 0.667, 2.0, 6.67, 15.0, 20.0, 35.0, 50.1 micrograms/mL with metabolic activation. The sister chromatid exchange frequency of cells in the treatment groups was then compared to the frequency in the control group.

There were no increases in SCE at any concentration level tested in either the presence or absence of metabolic activation.

The test material did not cause sister chromatid exchange in CHO cells, however it was cytotoxic at the highest concentrations tested.

Endpoint:
in vitro DNA damage and/or repair study
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1989
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Source of data is from peer reviewed literature. Acceptable well-documented study report which meets basic scientific principles: GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 479 (Genetic Toxicology: In Vitro Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay in Mammalian Cells)
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
sister chromatid exchange assay in mammalian cells
Species / strain / cell type:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 from livers of aroclor-induced Sprague-Dawley rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
2.0, 6.67, 20.0, 35.0, 50.1, 66.7 μg/ml without metabolic activation
0.667, 2.0, 6.67, 15.0, 20.0, 35.0, 50.1 μg/ml with metabolic activation
Vehicle / solvent:
DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
DMSO
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: MMC (unactivated cultures) and CP (metabolic activation)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in suspension

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 22.5 hrs (w/o activation); 2 hrs (w/ activation)
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): After 23 hour incubation with Brdu), metaphase cells were collected by mitotic shake off

Positive Controls: mitomycin C (MMC, unactivated cultures) and cyclophosphamide (CP, metabolic activation)
Evaluation criteria:
Total sister chromatid exchange (SCE), SCE per chromosome, SCE per cell in the M2 stage of mitosis, percentage of cells in the M1, M1+, or M2 stages of cell cycle.
Statistics:
Evaluation of mutagenic responses was based on statistical comparisons of SCE frequencies in the C9 treated cultures with those in the negative (solvent) control cultures (Bancroft 1957, Hollander and Wolfe 1973).
Key result
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
cytotoxic at 90.2 ug/mL with metabolic activation
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
There were no increases in SCE at any concentration level tested in either the presence or absence of metabolic activation. Cell-cycle delay was not observed at concentration levels below 66.7 ug/mL (w/o activation) or below 50.1 ug/mL (w/ activation). The positive controls produced significant increases in the % SCE as compared to their respective negative controls.
  Dose Cells # Chromosomes # SCE SCE  SCE/Cell
  ug/mL Scored     Chromosomes (Mean +/- SE)
Assay #1: w/o metabolic activation            
Negative Control - 50 1044 443 0.42 8.86 (.36)
Solvent Control 11 50 1038 536 0.52 10.72 (.45)
Positive Control: MMC 0.005 20 420 570 1.36 28.5 (1.13)
C9 Aromatics 2 50 1037 530 0.51 10.6 (.43)
  6.67 50 1038 474 0.46 9.48 (.51)
  20 50 1044 480 0.46 9.6 (.44)
  66.67 50 1038 524 0.5 10.48 (.39)
  200 Toxic - - - -
             
Assay #2: w/o metabolic activation            
Negative Control - 50 1038 399 0.38 7.98 (.38)
Solvent Control 11 50 1047 432 0.41 8.64 (.5)
Positive Control: MMC 0.005 20 417 547 1.31 27.35 (1.49)
C9 Aromatics 35 50 1043 428 0.41 8.56 (.49)
  50.1 50 1042 461 0.44 9.22 (.36)
  66.7 50 1041 443 0.43 8.86 (.44)
  90.1 50 Toxic - - -
             
             
             
  Dose Cells # Chromosomes # SCE SCE  SCE/Cell
  ug/mL Scored     Chromosomes (Mean +/- SE)
Assay #1: w/ metabolic activation            
Negative Control - 50 1037 443 0.43 8.86 (.43)
Solvent Control 11 50 1032 430 0.42 8.60 (.49)
Positive Control: MMC 1.5 20 415 379 0.91 18.95 (1.20)
C9 Aromatics 0.667 50 1038 449 0.43 8.98 (.34)
  2 50 1034 484 0.47 9.68 (.43)
  6.67 50 1045 474 0.45 9.48 (.46)
  20 50 1040 441 0.42 8.82 (.45)
  66.67 50 Toxic - - -
             
Assay #2: w/ metabolic activation            
Negative Control - 50 1048 417 0.4 8.34 (.43)
Solvent Control 11 50 1046 398 0.38 7.96 (.38)
Positive Control: MMC 1.5 20 418 457 1.09 22.85 (.91)
C9 Aromatics 15 50 1043 372 0.36 7.44 (.40)
  20 50 1048 444 0.42 8.88 (0.44)
  35 50 1055 400 0.38 8.00 (.46)
  50.1 50 1047 420 0.4 8.4 (.48)
  66.7 50 Toxic - - -
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test material did not cause sister chromatid exchange in CHO cells, however it is cytotoxic at the highest concentrations tested.
Executive summary:

The test material did not cause sister chromatid exchange in CHO cells, however it is cytotoxic at the highest concentrations tested.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Description of key information

Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.

 

Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics:

Genetic Toxicity in vivo - Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosome Aberration Test (OECD TG 475)

 

Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics:

Genetic Toxicity in vivo - Micronucleus Assay in Mouse Bone Marrow (OECD TG 474)

Genetic Toxicity in vivo - Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosome Aberration Test (OECD TG 475) - Read-Across from C9 Aromatics

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
in vivo mammalian somatic cell study: cytogenicity / bone marrow chromosome aberration
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable well-documented publication which meets basic scientific principles.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 475 (Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosome Aberration Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
chromosome aberration assay
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Details on exposure:
- Exposure apparatus: 16 m glass and steel chambers.
- Method of holding animals in test chamber: cages
- Source and rate of air: Air was provided by a separate HVAC system.
- Method of conditioning air: Air was filtered for particulates and temperature and humidity controlled.
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: Test atmosphere was generated by heating nitrogen to 200°C by passing it through a 1 L stainless steel cylinder with a 1500 W band heater. The nitrogen then passed through a glass column 7.6 cm diameter and 30 cm long packed with glass beads. Test material was delivered by a metering pump into Teflon tubing, to the bottom of the column. The liquid test substance vaporized as it went up the column with the nitrogen. The vapor then went into the test chambers where dilution with the chamber ventilation air produced the desired concentrations.- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: Air flow rate, temperature and relative humidity were monitored every half-hour during exposure.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: Measurements made hourly using gas-phase IR.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes

Duration of treatment / exposure:
6 hours/day
Frequency of treatment:
5 days
Post exposure period:
6, 24, or 48 hours
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
150 ppm
Basis:
nominal conc.
153 (9.6) ppm measured
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
500 ppm
Basis:
nominal conc.
471 (13.1) ppm measured concentration
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
1500 ppm
Basis:
nominal conc.
1540 (48) ppm measured concentration
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15 male/15 female
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Positive control(s):
10 animals of each sex were exposed to cyclophosphamide
- Route of administration: injected intraperitoneally
- Doses / concentrations: 40 mg/kg
Tissues and cell types examined:
bone marrow
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
DETAILS OF SLIDE PREPARATION: 4 slides per rat were stained with Giemsa.


METHOD OF ANALYSIS: Slides were scanned for well resolved metaphase spreads. Fifty metaphases per animal were evaluated.

Evaluation criteria:
total number of chromosome aberrations, frequency of aberrations per metaphase, percent metaphases with one or more aberrations, percent metaphases with two or more aberrations
Statistics:
Kruskal-Wallis multiple group comparison test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Genotoxicity:
negative
Toxicity:
yes
Remarks:
reduced body weight gain in 1500 ppm group
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid

Chromosome Aberrations in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Post-Exposure Interval

Exposure

Group

Number

Number of Spreads

Number of Aberrations

% Abrr. Per Metaphase

% Metaphases > 1 Abrr.

% Metaphases > 2 Abrr.

6-hours

Air

8

400

0

0

0

0

150 ppm

9

450

0

0

0

0

500 ppm

10

487

0

0

0

0

1500 ppm

9

450

0

0

0

0

24 hours

Air

9

450

1

0.2

0.2

0

150 ppm

10

482

0

0

0

0

500 ppm

10

500

0

0

0

0

1500 ppm

10

500

1

0.2

0.2

0

Cyclo-phosphamide

9

453

130

28.7

14.6

8.2

48 hours

Air

4

200

0

0

0

0

150 ppm

4

200

0

0

0

0

500 ppm

4

200

0

0

0

0

1500 ppm

3

150

0

0

0

0

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test substance was not clastogenic at levels up to and including 1500 ppm.
Executive summary:

A rat bone marrow cytogenicity study was performed to determine the clastogenicity of high flash aromatic naphtha. 15 male and 15 female rats were exposed via inhalation to 150, 500, or 1500 ppm of high flash aromatic naphtha for 6 hrs/day for 5 days. Rats were sacrificed at 6, 24, or 48 hrs after end of exposure, and the bone marrow then examined for chromosome and chromatid aberrations.

There was no increase in the number of aberrations as compared to negative controls in any of the exposure groups. A significant increase in the number of aberrations was seen in the positive control group, therefore the test is valid.

In conclusion, the test substance is not clastogenic.

Endpoint:
in vivo mammalian somatic cell study: cytogenicity / bone marrow chromosome aberration
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1989
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Source of data is from secondary literature. Acceptable well-documented study report which meets basic scientific principles: GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 475 (Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosome Aberration Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
chromosome aberration assay
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Details on exposure:
- Exposure apparatus: 16 m glass and steel chambers.
- Method of holding animals in test chamber: cages
- Source and rate of air: Air was provided by a seperate HVAC system.
- Method of conditioning air: Air was filtered for particulates and temperature and humidity controlled.
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: Test atmosphere was generated by heating nitrogen to 200 degree C by passing it through a 1 L stainless steel cylinder with a 1500 W band heater. The nitrogen then passed through a glass column 7.6 cm diameter and 30 cm long packed with glass beads. Test material was delivered by a metering pump into Teflon tubing, to the bottom of the column. The liquid test substance vaporized as it went up the column with the nitrogen. The vapor then went into the test chambers where dilution with the chamber ventilation air produced the desired concentrations.- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: Air flow rate, temperature and relative humidity were monitored every half-hour during exposure.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: Measurements made hourly using gas-phase IR.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
Duration of treatment / exposure:
6 hours/day

Frequency of treatment:
5 days
Post exposure period:
6, 24, or 48 hours
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 150, 500, 1500 ppm
Basis:
nominal conc.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 153 (9.6), 471 (13.1), 1540 (48) ppm
Basis:
analytical conc.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15 male/15 female
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Positive control(s):
10 animals of each sex were exposed to cyclophosphamide
- Route of administration: injected intraperitoneally
- Doses / concentrations: 40 mg/kg
Tissues and cell types examined:
bone marrow
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
DETAILS OF SLIDE PREPARATION: 4 slides per rat were stained with Giemsa.
METHOD OF ANALYSIS: Slides were scanned for well resolved metaphase spreads. Fifty metaphases per animal were evaluated.
Evaluation criteria:
total number of chromosome aberrations, frequency of aberrations per metaphase, percent metaphases with one or more aberrations, percent metaphases with two or more aberrations
Statistics:
Kruskal-Wallis multiple group comparison test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Genotoxicity:
negative
Toxicity:
yes
Remarks:
reduced body weight gain in 1500 ppm group
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid

Chromosome Aberrations in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Post-Exposure Interval

Exposure

Group

Number

Number of Spreads

Number of Aberrations

% Abrr. Per Metaphase

% Metaphases > 1 Abrr.

% Metaphases > 2 Abrr.

6-hours

Air

8

400

0

0

0

0

 

150 ppm

9

450

0

0

0

0

 

500 ppm

10

487

0

0

0

0

 

1500 ppm

9

450

0

0

0

0

24 hours

Air

9

450

1

0.2

0.2

0

 

150 ppm

10

482

0

0

0

0

 

500 ppm

10

500

0

0

0

0

 

1500 ppm

10

500

1

0.2

0.2

0

 

Cyclo-phosphamide

9

453

130

28.7

14.6

8.2

48 hours

Air

4

200

0

0

0

0

 

150 ppm

4

200

0

0

0

0

 

500 ppm

4

200

0

0

0

0

 

1500 ppm

3

150

0

0

0

0

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test substance was not clastogenic at levels up to and including 1500 ppm.
Executive summary:

The test substance was not clastogenic at levels up to and including 1500 ppm.

Endpoint:
in vivo mammalian somatic cell study: cytogenicity / erythrocyte micronucleus
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: According to OECD Guideline 474. GLP
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 474 (Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
micronucleus assay
Species:
mouse
Strain:
CD-1
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
Source: Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Inc.
Sex: Male (65), Female (65)
Age at study initiation: Approximately 9-10 weeks
Weight at study initiation: 23-39g
Housing: Individually
Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Purina Certified Rodent 5002 chow (pellets), ad libitum
Water (e.g. ad libitum): Automatic watering system, ad libitum
Acclimation period: 35d

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Temperature (°F): 68-76
Humidity (%): 40-70%
Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
Corn oil was used. Dose volume did not exceed 1.0 ml/100 g bw.
Details on exposure:
The test material and the carrier were administered by oral gavage as a single dose. The carrier was dosed at a volume equal to the test material dose volume. The individual animal dose volumes did not exceed 1.0 ml/100 g body weight; animals were administered 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 g test material/ kg body weight. The positive control, cyclophosphamide was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection (40 mg/kg) using water as a carrier.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Animals were sacrificed 24, 48, and 72 hours after dose administration.
Frequency of treatment:
One dose was given at either 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 g test material/ kg body weight.
Post exposure period:
Animals were sacrificed 24, 48, and 72 hours after dose administration.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0.25, 0.5, 1.0g/kg/bw
Basis:
other: oral gavage
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Male (65), Female (65) ; 5 Males and 5 Females per treatment group
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Positive control(s):
The positive control, cyclophosphamide was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection (40 mg/kg) using water as a carrier.
Tissues and cell types examined:
Erythrocytes derived from femur bone marrow.
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
Immediately following the sacrifice of the animals, both femurs were removed and the bone marrow was removed and suspended in fetal bovine serum. After the suspension was centrifuged the pellet was resuspended and smears were prepared (two slides per animal).
Evaluation criteria:
Slides were stained using acridine orange; polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) stained red/orange, nonchromatic erythrocytes (NCE) are unstained (dull green), and micronuclei stain bright yellow. Additional criteria for scoring micronuclei are a circular appearance and a diameter between 1/20 and 1/5 of the cell’s diameter. 1000 PCE from each animal were examined for the presence of micronuclei and the ratio of PCE to NCE was determined for each animal by counting 1000 erythrocytes (PCE and NCE).
Statistics:
Calculation of means and standard deviations of the micronuclei data and a test of equality of group means by a standard one way analysis of variance at each time period (ANOVA). When ANOVA was significant, comparisons of carrier control to dosed group means were made according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.

A standard regression analysis was performed to test for a dose response.
Residuals from the ANOVA were analyzed for normality by Wilk’s Criterion. The residuals were normally distributed (values were greater than 0.01 level of significance). Therefore nonparametric analysis was not performed.

Sexes were analyzed separately.
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Genotoxicity:
negative
Toxicity:
yes
Remarks:
2(male), 1 (female) animals at 2.5 g/kg; 1 (female) at 1.0 g/kg
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
The positive control (cyclophosphamide) induces a statistically significant increase in the mean number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, indicating that the positive control was clastogenic and was responding in an appropriate manner. Carrier control values for the mean percent of polychromatic erythrocytes and for the mean number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes are within the normal range for the corn oil control.

MRD-90-884 did not induce a statistically significant increase in the mean number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. A significant regression coefficient (p<0.05) was observed in the mean micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes for the 48 hour female group. However, the mean values were not significant when compared to the carrier control and were within the normal range of the carrier control. Therefore this statistical response is not believed to be biologically significant. MRD-90-884 was not clastogenic in mouse bone marrow under the conditions of this test.

Necropsies of the four animals that died prior to the scheduled sacrifice (2(male), 1 (female) animals at 2.5 g/kg; 1 (female) at 1.0 g/kg) revealed that most common effects were urine stains and a tan mucous like material in the small intestine. The most probable cause of death was due to the toxicity of the test material.
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

These data indicate that MRD-90-884 is not cytotoxic and is not clastogenic in CD-1 mouse bone marrow cells at doses up to and including 1.0 g/Kg of body weight.
Executive summary:

The test material, MRD-90-884 was tested in the mammalian bone marrow micronucleus assay using CD-1 mice.  MRD-90-884 was tested at 24, 48, and 72 hour intervals following exposure and did not induce a statistically significant decrease in the mean percent of polychromatic erythrocytes or an increase in the mean number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. 

Both the positive (cyclophosphamide) and the negative (carrier) controls behaved in an appropriate manner. These data indicate that MRD-90-884 is not cytotoxic and is not clastogenic in CD-1 mouse bone marrow cells at doses up to and including 1.0 g/Kg.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Additional information

Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.

 

Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics:

Hydrocarbons, C9 aromatics are not mutagenic using in vitro or in vivo genotoxicity assays.  In bacterial reverse mutation tests, Hydrocarbons,C9

aromatics were not mutagenic in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. Likewise, there were no mutagenic effects reported in an in vitro mammalian gene mutation test (HGPRT forward mutation assay). No in vitro chromosomal effects were reported in a Chinese hamster ovary assay that examined the Hydrocarbons, C9 aromatics. The Hydrocarbons, C9 aromatics, were not clastogenic in an in vivo mammalian bone marrow chromosome aberration test. These data demonstrate that these substances are not categorizable genotoxins either in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, no there evidence of hyperplastic responses or pre-neoplastic lesions in sub-chronic and chronic repeat-dose studies in either the Hydrocarbons, C9 aromatics. All studies were conducted in a manner similar or equivalent to currently established OECD guidelines. Hydrocarbons, C9 aromatics are a non-genotoxic agent and classification is not warranted.

 

Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics:

C10-C12 Aromatics are not mutagenic using in vitro or in vivo genotoxicity assays. Further data derived from read across data from the supporting

substance (structural analogue or surrogate), the C9 Aromatics also support the conclusion that C10-C12 Aromatics are not genotoxic. In bacterial reverse mutation tests, C10-C12 Aromatics were not mutagenic in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. Likewise, there were no mutagenic effects reported in a read-across in vitro mammalian gene mutation test (HGPRT forward mutation assay) in the supporting substance, C9 Aromatics. No in vitro chromosomal effects were reported in a Chinese hamster ovary assay that examined the C9 Aromatics. The test substance, C10-C12 Aromatics, did not produce chromosomal effects when tested in an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Likewise, the supporting substance C9 Aromatics, were not clastogenic in an in vivo mammalian bone marrow chromosome aberration test. These data demonstrate that these substances are not categorizable genotoxins either in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, no there evidence of hyperplastic responses or pre-neoplastic lesions in sub-chronic and chronic repeat-dose studies in either the C9 aromatics or the C10-C12 Aromatics. All studies were conducted in a manner similar or equivalent to currently established OECD guidelines. C10-C12 Aromatics are a non-genotoxic agent and classification is not warranted.

Justification for classification or non-classification

There is no data available for Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene. Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Based on the negative results from read across in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene do not warrant classification as genotoxins under Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).