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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

EU Method C.1, Danio rerio (Zebra fish): LC50(96h): 6.5 mg/L (geometric mean)  
Calculation with ECOSAR v1.00 (EPIWIN software by US-EPA): LC50(96h): 137.87 mg/L
Swedish STORK project, Danio rerio (Zebra fish): LC50(96h): 2100 mg/L

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
6.5 mg/L

Additional information

The acute toxicity of the substance 4-phenylbutenone was investigated according to EU Method C.1 (which is equivalent to OECD Guideline 203) (Kanne, 1993). No GLP certificate is included, however, the study was performed under GLP compliance. Danio rerio (Zebra fish) was used as test organisms and was exposed for 96 hours to the test substance. A control was included, no reference substance is mentioned. It was a semi-static freshwater test with substance concentrations of 5.5, 7.8, 11, 16 and 22 mg/L. The substance was applied by direct weight and was grinded with a mortar and treated for 60 sec with 8000 rpm in an Ultra-Turrax before. An 8 hours light / 16 h dark cycle was applied. As results a LC0 of 5.1 mg/L and a LC100 of 8.3 mg/L were reported, using the arithmetic mean of the analytically determined concentrations. The LC50 of 6.5 mg/L was determined by the geometric mean of the obtained values mentioned before. All values are based on an exposure period of 96 hours.

Supporting information is given by the prediction with the computer program ECOSAR v1.00 (EPIWIN software) by US-EPA (Chemservice GmbH, 2011).An extensive set of structure – activity relationships (SARs) is utilized by the computer program, to predict the acute and chronic toxicity for three trophic levels for aquatic species, based on the Vinyl / Allyl Ketones.The mode of toxic action for most neutral organic chemicals is narcosis, and many chemical classes present toxicity to organisms via narcosis (i.e. ethers, alcohols, ketones). However, some organic chemical classes have been identified as having a more specific mode of toxicity. These are typically organics that are reactive and ionizable and that exhibit excess toxicity in addition to narcosis (i.e. acrylates, epoxides, anilines). For fish a LC50 of 137.87 mg/L is predicted after a test substance exposure of 96 h.

Brorson et al. (1994) investigated the potential environmental impact of wastewater from a chemical-pharmaceutical plant. For this purpose, the test substance was investigated in a mixture for its toxicity potential towards the freshwater fishBrachydanio rerio (new name: Danio rerio). The experimental part was conducted as semi-static test with an exposure duration of 96 h. It was part of the STORK project of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The complex effluent of a wastewater mixture which is dominated by the activities of a chemical plant, including benzylidene acetone (CAS 122-57-6) was used for testing. Degraded as well as nondegraded test sample were used and none of them showed any lethal effect to zebra fish. However, at test concentrations > 60 %, normal swimming of fish was disturbed, making them rest at the bottom of the vessel. Gill movements were not affected and all fishes were capable of swimming. The LC50(96h) value is therefore reported to be > 0.21 %, corresponding to a value of 2100 mg/L.