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Environmental fate & pathways

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Biodegradation in water

The predicted data for the test compound 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No. 88-63-1) and the study for its read across substances (CAS: 121-57-3; 88-53-9 and 88-44-8) were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2016) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound 2,4-Diaminobenzene sulfonic acid (CAS no. 88-63-1) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid is not expected to be readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Sulfanilic acid (J-CHECK, 2016). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 100 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 30 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test substance was found to be 3% by BOD, 4% by TOC removal and 1% by HPLC in 28 days. Thus, the substance Sulfanilic acid is not expected to be readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation study was conducted according to MITI Test for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Sulfanilic acid (HSDB, 2016). Conc. of inoculum used for the study was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 8% by ThBOD in 14 days Thus, the substance Sulfanilic acid was evaluated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Sulfanilic acid (GSBL database, 2016). Initial test substance conc. used in the study was 2 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test substance was found to be 55% by using BOD and COD parameter in 28 days. Thus, the substance Sulfanilic acid is not expected to be readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 2-Amino-5-chloro-4 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (J-CHECK, 2016). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test substance was found to be 0% by O2 consumption & BOD, 2% by TOC removal and < 0% by Test mat. analysis & UV-Vis in 14 days. Thus, the substance 2-Amino-5-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid is not expected to be readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 2-Amino-5-methylbenzenesulfonic acid(J-CHECK, 2016). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test substance was found to be 0% by O2 consumption & BOD and < 0 % by TOC removal, Test mat. analysis & UV-Vis in 14 days. Thus, the substance 2-Amino-5-methylbenzenesulfonic acid is not expected to be readily biodegradable in water.

On the basis of above results for target and read across substances, it can be concluded that the test substance compound 2,4 -Diaminobenzenesulfonic acidcan be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI) Suite (2016) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No. 88 -63 -1). If released in to the environment, 35 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0835%), indicates that 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid is not persistent in nature.   

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No. 88 -63 -1) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2016. If released into the environment, 64.9% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid in soil is estimated to be 75 days(1800 hrs).Based on this half-life value of 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low. 

On the basis of available information, the test substance 2,4-Diaminobenzenesulfonic acid cannot be considered to be readily biodegradable in nature