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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity: oral
Remarks:
other: growth curves, path of elimination, digestion trials
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Read-across from a sparingly water soluble chromate and from a highly water soluble chromate. Documenting not sufficient, not a guideline or GLP study.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Chromates in animal nutrition.
Author:
Gross, W. G., V. G. Heller
Year:
1946
Bibliographic source:
J Ind Hyg Toxicol.28: 52-56.

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
The animals were given test substances in either their drinking water or in their feed. The influence of test substances on growing animals were studied, as well as the path of elimination of the substances.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
potassium chromate, zinc chromate

Test animals

Species:
other: white mice, albino rats, New Zealand rabbits

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: feed
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
zinc chromate, influence on growing animals: 1% for mature white mice, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% for young albino rats, 1% for half-grown albino rats
Basis:
other: per cent in feed
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
zinc chromate, digestion trial: 1% for rabbits
Basis:
other: per cent in feed
Control animals:
yes

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): No
FOOD EFFICIENCY: No
WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No
OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No
HAEMATOLOGY: No
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: No
URINALYSIS: No
NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER: chromium in blood and urine samples; digestion coefficients of nitrogen, ash, calcium, phosphorus and fat

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not examined
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY:
Young rats were stunted and made sterile by one eight of one per cent of zinc chromate.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN:
For mature white rats and mice, the maximum non-toxic level of zinc chromate in feed is one per cent.

OTHER FINDINGS:
Chromium tests on the blood and urine were negative. Therefore, the path of chromates through the digestive tract is unlike many other soluble salts.
One per cent zinc chromate markedly lowers digestion coefficients on practically all components in the feed.

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

For rats, the maximum non-toxic level of chromate salts in drinking water is 500 ppm.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

Gross and Heller (1946) exposed young albino rats and mature white mice with 1) potassium chromate in their drinking water, 2) potassium chromate in their feed and 3) zinc chromate in their feed. Rats fed a diet containing sparingly soluble zinc chromate (359, 718, 1,435 or 2,870 ppm Cr) showed signs of overt toxicity at all doses (rough and dirty coat, subnormal or emaciated appearance). Adult mice fed a diet containing zinc chromate (2,870 ppm Cr) showed no signs of overt toxicity. Additionally, Gross and Heller (1946) studied path of elimination of chromates and conducted digestion trials. In conclusion, for mature white rats and mice, the maximum non-toxic level of zinc chromate in feed was one percent. Young rats were stunted and made sterile by one eight of one percent. Furthermore, digestion trials showed that on percent zinc chromate markedly lowers digestion coefficients on practically all components in the feed.