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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Read-across from highly water soluble chromates. Comparable to guideline study. Symposium paper.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
Acute toxicity of chromate salts
Author:
Gad, S. C., B. J. Dunn, et al.
Year:
1986
Bibliographic source:
Serrone D. editor: Proceedings of Chromium Symposium 1986: an update., Industrial Health Foundation.

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
standard set of protocol for acute oral toxicity
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, potassium dichromate, ammonium dichromate

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Fischer 344
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Harlen Sprague Dawley, Indianapolis, Indiana
- Fasting period before study: overnight before dosing
- Housing: individually in suspended stainless steel cages with wire mesh on the front and bottom
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Purina Rodent Chow No. 5001
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libidum
- Acclimation period: guarantined for at least two weeks

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 72+-2 F
- Humidity (%): 50+-5
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Doses:
25, 50, 60, 75 and 90 mg/kg for sodium chromate and ammonium dichromate; 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg for sodium chromate and potassium dichromate
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: closely observed for six hours, the whole period 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing: clinical observations on days 0, 1, 7, 14
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight
Statistics:
A probit analysis program was utilized to calculate the LD50 and its 95% confidence interval. Quantitative continuous variables were intercompared for the dosage group versus the control group by the use of Barlett's homogeneity of variance, analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range procedure.

Results and discussion

Effect levelsopen allclose all
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
51.91 mg/kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: sodium chromate
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
51.1 mg/kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: sodium dichromate
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
57.18 mg/kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: potassium dochromate
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
53.75 mg/kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: ammonium dichromate

Any other information on results incl. tables

Animals receiving a lethal dose of any chromate salt showed numerous compound-related gross necropsy observations (such as pulmonary congestion, fluid distension of stomach and intestine, erosion and discoloration of G.I. mucosa, anal-genital, staining and diarrhea) that were evenly distributed between sexes and similar for all four test compounds.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
harmful
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: OECD GHS
Conclusions:
In this study with highly water soluble chromates, combined LD50 values for both sexes fall into category 3 'toxic if swallowed'.
Executive summary:

Gad et al. (1986) exposed rats to four salts of hexavalent chromium (sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, potassium dichromate and ammonium dichromate) in a single exposure of acute oral toxicity. Fischer 344 rats (5 M/5 F in each test group) were dosed as follows: 25, 50, 60, 75 and 90 mg/kg of sodium chromate or of ammonium dichromate, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg of sodium dichromate or of potassium dichromate. Any of the four chromium salts tested was capable of producing acute death and/or systemic toxic effects which include hypoactivity, lacrimation, mydriasis, diarrhea, and a change in body weight. Acute oral LD50 values in rats exposed to chromium(VI) compounds varied with the compound and the sex of the rat. LD50 values for these chromium(VI) compounds ranged from 39.02 mg/kg for sodium dichromate to 47.94 mg/kg for potassium dichromate in female rats and from 54.77 mg/kg for ammonium dichromate to 87.08 mg/kg for sodium dichromate in male rats.