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EC number: 244-168-5
CAS number: 21041-95-2
Number of animals
* body weight:
mean body weight of all experimental animals did not differ from that of
- No death
- No effect of
exposure on RBC (red blood cell) counts. Mean white blood cell counts
were elevated at the end of the inhalation period for all exposed rats
but recovered after the 2-month observation period.
- GPT in serum
activity was elevated only for the CdO exposed rats. Mean urinary
cadmium content showed a slight but statistically significant increase
for the cadmium sulphide and cadmium oxide groups at the end of the
- elevation of
the mean alveolar macrophage cell count at the end of exposure for the
three exposed groups. Size of these cells had increased and there was an
increased abundance of leukocytes and of macrophages with more than a
exposure had a cytotoxic effect [protein content, activities of LDH and
(-) glucuronidase in lavage fluid]. CdO and CdS resulted in greater
effects than cadmium chloride. After the 2 months post-exposure period,
most of these values were not significantly different from controls.
* Cadmium body
exposure resulted in a low cadmium body burden. The liver and kidney
burden of the CdO and CdS groups were comparatively much higher at the
end of the inhalation as well as after the post-exposure observation
retention in the lung:
(wet digested homogenates): lung cadmium retention were two times lower
for the CdCl2 exposed rats, than for the CdO group. Subcellullar
compartmental cadmium retention in the lung: For both the cadmium
chloride and cadmium oxide exposed rats most of the lung cadmium was
distributed to the cytosolic compartment. CdS exposure resulted in
increased accumulation in lung compartments which could not be
determined by this method (extracellular, intracellular, nuclear and
other fractions). In the CdO and CdS exposed rats lung cytosolic cadmium
were about two times higher than in the cadmium chloride treated
animals. At the end of the post-exposure period, 70% of the cytosolic
cadmium was measured to be bound to metallothionein (for the CdO and the
CdCl2 groups). Both total and cytosolic cadmium were cleared from the
lungs similarly in all groups at the rate of 53 to 60% during the 2
month- period after inhalation.
(MT) contents in the lung:
controls inhalation of cadmium chloride resulted in a three times higher
MT both at the end of the inhalation and of the post-exposure period. MT
induction in the lungs of the CdO and CdS exposed rats had increased
five times compared to controls.
a thirty-day inhalation study, male Wistar rats were continuously
exposed to submicron aerosols of CdCl2 (0.1 mg/m3), CdO (0.1 mg/m3) and
CdS (1 mg/m3).
CdCl2 and CdO, most of the cadmium was found in the lung cytosolic
compartment, but for CdS only 30% of the cadmium was retrieved from the
lung cytosols. This was observed both at the end of the inhalation and
also after an additional 2-month period in fresh air. After 1 month of
Cd inhalation and also after the observation period, the lung cadmium
retention was twice lower for the CdCl2 exposed rats than for the CdO
group. The cadmium content of the lung homogenates, cytosols, and the
lung cytosolic metallothionein were found to be twice as much in case of
exposure to CdO than in case of exposure to CdCl2. For exposure to CdS
at cadmium concentrations 10 times higher the same cadmium levels were
found as for CdO. These results were confirmed by results from alveolar
lavage analysis indicating that inhaled CdO is more available to lung
tissue than the very soluble CdCl2, and CdO has an availability 10 times
as much as CdS. In comparison to the controls, the mean urinary cadmium
content showed a slight but statistically significant increase for the
CdS group at the end of the inhalation period as well as in the CdO
group at the end of the observation period. It should be noted that the
CdS data have been questioned due to probable oxidation to the sulfate
as a function of the aerosol generating system used.
the test conditions, it was observed in male Wistar rats that inhaled
CdO is more available to lung tissue than the very soluble CdCl2, and
CdO has an availability 10 times higher than CdS.
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