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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term (with study design considered suitable for long-term assessment)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Additional experiments were carried out in nurtient solutions.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Analytical monitoring at test start and end of exposure and before renewal of test solution
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Test substance was dissolved in water, added to soil and thoroughly mixed.
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: soil and solution (and perlite as an unreactive substrate)
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Remarks:
14 d in soil, 21 d in nutrient solution
Test temperature:
21 ± 4 °C
pH:
7.5 (adjusted with 1 N KCl)
Moisture:
Soil experiment: 25 to 30 % moisture content (80% of the water-holding capacity)
Details on test conditions:
Parallel tests in two institutes in the Netherlands
16:8 h light:dark 6500 lx fluorescent tubes
Nominal and measured concentrations:
At least 3,2, 10, 32, 100, 320, and 1000 µg/g (nominal) were used.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
69 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.l.: 51-94
Remarks:
soil
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
96 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.l.: 63-147
Remarks:
soil
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
50 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.l.: 42-61
Remarks:
nutrient solution
For most of the examined phenols (including m-cresol) applied concentrations 
dropped but remained larger than 50% of the nominal values.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Executive summary:

The toxicity of m-cresol to lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa) was determined according to OECD Guideline 208 in soil. The EC50 was 69 mg/kg soil d.w. after 7 d, 96 mg/kg soil d.w. after 14 d (Hulzebos et al. 1993).

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Seed germination test
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: agar
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Test temperature:
30 ± 0.5 °C
Details on test conditions:
5 replicates/concentration, 10 mL agar/seed
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
3 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
53 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
germination
Result was reported as "0.49 mmol/l" which equals 53 mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The effect of m-cresol on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) fruit was tested under laboratory conditions. The EC50 (3d) was 53 mg/L in test solution used for the growth medium (agar) (Reynolds, 1978).

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term (with study design considered suitable for long-term assessment)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Additional experiments were carried out in nurtient solutions.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Analytical monitoring at test start and end of exposure and before renewal of test solution
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Test substance was dissolved in water, added to soil and thoroughly mixed.
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: soil and nutrient solution (and perlite as an unreactive substrate)
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Remarks:
14 d in soil, 21 d in nutrient solution
Test temperature:
21 ± 4 °C
pH:
7.5 (adjusted with 1 N KCl)
Moisture:
Soil experiment: 25 to 30 % moisture content (80% of the water-holding capacity)
Details on test conditions:
Parallel tests in two institutes in the Netherlands
16:8 h light:dark 6500 lx fluorescent tubes
Nominal and measured concentrations:
At least 3,2, 10, 32, 100, 320, and 1000 µg/g (nominal) were used.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
67 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 52-86
Remarks:
soil
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: soil
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
23 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: (16-31)
Remarks:
nutrient solution
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Executive summary:

The toxicity of o-cresol to lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa) was determined according to OECD Guideline 208 in soil. The EC50 was 67 mg/kg soil d.w. after 7 d, >100 mg/kg soil d.w. after 14 d (Hulzebos, 1993). The highest effect concentration (EC50 >100 mg/kg) was normalised to an organic carbon content of 3.4% according to TGD (EU 2003), resulting in a corrected EC50 of >242 mg/kg.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Seed germination test
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: agar
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Test temperature:
30 ± 0.5 °C
Details on test conditions:
5 replicates/concentration, 10 mL agar/seed
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
3 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
38.9 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
germination

Result was reported as "0.36 mmol/l" which equals 38.9 mg/L

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The effect of o-cresol on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) fruit was tested under laboratory conditions. The EC50 (3d) was 38.9 mg/L in test solution used for the growth medium (agar) (Reynolds, 1978).

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Seed germination test
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: agar
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Test temperature:
30 ± 0.5 °C
Details on test conditions:
5 replicates/concentration, 10 mL agar/seed
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
3 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
122 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
germination

Result was reported as "1.13 mmol/l" which equals 122 mg/L

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The effect of p-cresol on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) fruit was tested under laboratory conditions. The EC50 (3d) was 122 mg/L in test solution used for the growth medium (agar) (Reynolds, 1978).

Description of key information

The toxicity of m-cresol to lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa) was determined according to OECD Guideline 208 in soil. The EC50 was 69 mg/kg soil d.w. after 7 d and 96 mg/kg soil d.w. after 14 d, representing the most sensitive value.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Short-term EC50 or LC50 for terrestrial plants:
96 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

Data on the toxicity to terrestrial plants are available for constituents of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0), namely o-, m-, and p-cresol. These data are used to determine the hazard of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) by applying a weight of evidence and an analogue read-across approach. The studies were conducted with seedlings of Lactuca sativa. A worst-case scenario is followed, i.e. for assessment purposes the most sensitive values are considered. For details on the read-across approach please refer to the analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13.

Effect values determined are listed in the table below:

Source

 

Species

p-cresol

m-cresol

o-cresol

Hulzebos et al., 1993

Growth inhibition

Lactuca sativa

-

EC50 (14d) = 96 mg/kg soil dw

EC50 (14d) > 242 mg/kg soil dw

Reynolds, 1978

Growth inhibition

Lactuca sativa

EC50 (3d) = 122 mg/L

EC50 (3d) = 53 mg/L

EC50 (3d) = 38.9 mg/L

* TT = toxicity treshold

From the table above it can be seen that available data demonstrate effect values for toxicity to terrestrial plants in a range from 96 to >242 mg/kg soil dw and 38.9 to 122 mg/L. Nevertheless, the test by Reynolds (1978) was designed assessing the influence of the test substances on germination and growth on moist filter paper or agar treated with the substances. As no soil was used in the tests standardization of soil effect data to given soil parameters is not possible. Further, converting the results to an appropriate dimension is not applicable. Therefore the result should not be used for the hazard assessment. Nevertheless, the obtained effect values indicate that p-cresol is of low toxicity to terrestrial plants.

Based on all available information (weight-of-evidence) and following an analogue read-across and considering the above stated the EC50 (14d) of 96 mg/kg soil dw determined for Lactuca sativa (Hulzebos et al., 1993) represents the most sensitive effect value to terrestrial plants for Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) and is considered as key value for the chemical safety assessment.