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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 5.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of 2,4-xylenol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is 5.1 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Test was conducted according to "Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish, Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians" (Ecological Research Series, EPA-660/3 -75 -009 (1975)).
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method:pure compound in destilled water was used as starting material to facilitate analysis of the compounds following wet oxidation; oxidation was carried out in a titanium 3,8-L (1 gallon) magna-derived stirred autoclave; autoclave was fitted with a rupture disk rated for 3000 psig 315 °C. Temperature regulation was achieved with a controller-recorder that regulated the external heating elements.
1 L of test material was charged into the autoclave, which was sealed and pressurized to the desired pressure with compressed air. After heating to the desired temperature for 1 hour the contents were cooled by an internal coil carrying cold water. The resulting gases were analysed to determine oxygen use and the contents were removed for further testing.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: EPA, Duluth, Minnesota, USA; maintained in the lab for 2 years

METHOD FOR PREPARATION AND COLLECTION OF EARLY INSTARS OR OTHER LIFE STAGES: First instar (12 ± 12 hours old) was used for the test
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
154.5 (range: 89.5 - 180) mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
22 °C (constant temperature chamber)
pH:
7.7 (7.7 - 8.2)
Conductivity:
290.4 (range: 225 - 325) µmohs/cm
Nominal and measured concentrations:
5 to 12 g/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: dilution water from a local springfed pond
- Alkalinity: 137.7 (range: 95 - 156) mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio: Ca: 32.7 mg/L; Mg: 19.7 mg/L
- Na (mg/L): 2.4 mg/L
- K (mg/L): 1.3 mg/L
- Conductivity: 290.4 (range: 225 - 325) µmhos/cm

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: no
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2.37 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CI: 1.77 - 3.17 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 values were estimated based on method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon.

Oxidation results

Tests at temperatures from 150 to 320 °C for 1 hour were completed first. Some compounds were easily destroyed at 200 °C, whereas others required higher temperatures for destruction. More than 99.8% of the starting compound was destroyed after oxidation at 320 °C for 1 hour. The 275 °C oxidations also produced a high degree of starting material destruction for most compounds. In the case of several slow-reacting compounds at 275 °C, addition of a copper catalyst caused a high degree of starting compound destruction in 1 hour.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Dilution series of a stock solution with moderate hard synthetic fresh water and mixed with appropriate volume of algae suspension; the suspension was mixed gently on a magnetic stirrer( approx. 120 rpm)for max. 30 min; 12 mL were used per test vessel;
- Controls: yes
Test organisms (species):
other: Brachionus calyciflorus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rotifer cyst
- Strain/clone: Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas
- Justification for species other than prescribed by test guideline:
- Source: originally collected in Gainesville, Florida,USA
- Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): 15 - 16 h

Feeding during test
- Food type: Green algae Nannochloris oculata
- Amount: 12 mL to each test tuve of stock solution: 3.0 x 10 E+06 cells/mL; an appropriate amount was added to the dilution water and an appropriate amount of test item (toxicant)
- Frequency: once

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 15 - 16h (time until hatching)

METHOD FOR PREPARATION AND COLLECTION OF EARLY INSTARS OR OTHER LIFE STAGES: Test animals were obtained by hatching rotifer cysts after 15 - 16 h. Hatching was initiated by placing about 40 ml of dilution water into a petri dish along with one cyst vial (approximately 3,000 cysts). The hatching dish was incubated at 25°C in light of 2,000 to 4,000 lux for 15 to 16 h. Hatching started after about 16 h, and within 2 h rotifers were transfer to test tubes.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
25 °C
pH:
7.5
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control treatment and five test concentrations
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
Test vessel:
- Type: closed (capped)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 16 x 150 mm disposable glass; 12 mL test volume;
- No. of organisms per vessel: 6 females
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 5
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 5

- Biomass loading rate: 6 females in 12 mL

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Dilution water consisted of 96 mg NaHCO, 60 mg CaSO4.2H2O, 60 mg MgS04.7H20, and 4 mg KCI in 1L of deionized water, adjusted to pH 7.5 with 10 M KOH or HCI, deionized water from Sybron-Barnstead (Dubuque, IA) Nanopure II@ system.
- Culture medium different from test medium: not different

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH:
- Photoperiod: darkness
- Light intensity: darkness
- Others: placed on a rotator revolving at 10 - 15 rph

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Reproduction rate: number of animals per tubes were counted

RANGE-FINDING STUDY no range-finding test was performed
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
8.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: reproduction (total number of offspring per single female within a 48 h test period)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: reproduction (total number of offspring per single female within a 48 h test period)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
208 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Test procedure comparable to standard method and in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards; detailed documentation of test procedure and test conditions
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPP 72-2 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia pulicaria
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
22.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of p-cresol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is 5 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: DIN 38412 part 11
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
25 mL/L of each of the following solutions were used for production of 1 litre of incubation solution (using deionized water):
11.76 g/L CaCl2 x H2O
4.93 g/L MgSO4 x 7H2O
2.59 g/L NaHCO3
0.23 g/L KCl
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
strain: IRCHA strain
age: 24 h
grown in tap water at 20 °C, artifical light 9 h/d (no daylight). Daphnids were fed with dry Scenedesmus algae (approximately 10 mg dry feed/d)
Animals were selected for cultivation by filtration or for experiments by a pipette
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
synthetic fresh water
total hardness 2.5 mmol/L Ca:Mg = 4:1, Na:K = 10:1
Test temperature:
25 +/- 1 °C
pH:
8.0 +/- 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
aerated before use,
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal
Details on test conditions:
- Number of replicates: 4
- 1 animal/50 mL, 5 animals/vessel (for volatile or strongly smelling substances glass-stoppered glass-bottles were used)
- individuals per concentration: 20
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
chromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
2.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The short term toxicity of p-cresol to freshwater invertebrates was measured according to German Guideline DIN 38412 part 11. The EC50 (24 h) is 4.9 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPP 72-2 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: US EPA, Methods for acute toxicity test with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians. Nat. Environm. Res. Center, Corvallis (1974)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia pulicaria
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
707.3 mg/l CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
14 +/- 1°C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
6.5 mg/l (84.5% saturation)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 99.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of m-cresol to Daphnia magna was determined in an experiment under fow-through conditions (DeGraeve, 1980). After an exposure period of 24 h the LC50 was reported to be > 99.5 mg/l. The result relates to measured concentration as analytical control was performed.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of m-cresol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is ca. 30 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of 3,5-xylenol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is 14 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 11.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of 2,3-xylenol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is 11.5 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 1.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of 2,6-xylenol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is 1.5 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: Bestimmung der Schwimmfähigkeit beim Wasserfloh -Daphnia magna-; Verfahrensvorschlag: Umweltbundesamt Berlin, Satnd: Mai 1984
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Guideline comparable to OECD TG 202
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
concentration measured at lowest and highest test concentartion; at test start and after 48 hours exposure
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
stock solutions were prepared
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
age: 6 to 24 h
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
16.2
Test temperature:
20.2 - 21.6 °C
pH:
7.6 - 8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
6.0 - 8.4 mg/l; once 4.9 mg/l after 48 h exposure
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 7.8, 11, 16, 22, 31 and 44 mg/l
measured: at 7.8 mg/l: 7.52 at test start; 5.61 at test end
at 44 mg/l: 39.4 at test start; 38.3 at test end
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
44 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
21 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: NEN 6501 (1976): Toxicity test to Daphnia sp.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The sensitivity of Daphnia magna in short-term tests has been tested in comparison with Daphnia pulex and Daphnia cucullata. Additionally, the reproducibility of the method was tested.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia sp.
Details on test organisms:
The age of Daphnia cucullata deviated from the other Daphnia sp.: instead of < 1 day, 11 +/- 1 day old organisms were used
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
20 +/- 1°C
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Daphnia magna
Effect conc.:
15.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Overall Mean value
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Daphnia pulex
Effect conc.:
9.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Mean value
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Daphnia cucullata
Effect conc.:
16.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Mean value

The single results (48h-LC50 in mg/l) of each test and laboratory are shown in the table:

   Daphnia magna  Daphnia pulex  Daphnia cucullata
 Lab I  9.8  10.8  
   8.6  8.5  
 mean  9.2  9.6  
  Lab II (exp.1)  23.8    17.4
   23.1    15.5
 mean  23.5    16.4
  Lab II (exp.2)  15.1    
   14.0    
 mean  14.5    
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of o-cresol to Daphnia magna was determined in 3 different laboratories. The tests were carried out according to a Dutch standard method which is similar to OECD 202 . The lowest mean-value for the 48h-EC50 of 1 laboratory was reported to be 9.2 mg/l (Canton, 1978).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
age: 12h old
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
18 +/- 1°C
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
15.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
not specified

Result is expressed in molar concentration.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPP 72-2 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
concentrations were monitored by HPLC or GC daily during the test
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia pulicaria
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 94 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of o-cresol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is ca. 30 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Details on test organisms:
Insects: age: 3 rd instar
Molluscs: age: 3-4 weeks
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
Insects: 26°C
Molluscs: 20°C
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
other: NOLC Culex pipiens (Insect)
Effect conc.:
31 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Culex pipiens
Effect conc.:
46 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
other: NOLC Limnaea stagnalis (mollusc)
Effect conc.:
56 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
other: NOLC Aedes aegypti (Insect)
Effect conc.:
65 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Aedes aegypti
Effect conc.:
80 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Limnaea stagnalis
Effect conc.:
160 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
20 +/- 1°C
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Nemoura cinerea
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Gammarus pulex
Effect conc.:
21 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Asellus aquaticus
Effect conc.:
23 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Dugesia lugubris
Effect conc.:
24 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Chironomus thummi
Effect conc.:
34 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Ischnura elegans
Effect conc.:
46 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Cloeon dipterum
Effect conc.:
50 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Corixa punctata
Effect conc.:
80 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Erpobdella octoculata
Effect conc.:
135 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Remarks:
Tubificidae
Effect conc.:
165 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 5.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of 3,4-xylenol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is 5.3 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized sea-urchin eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
other: Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (sea urchin)
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- single layer of eggs were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The toxicity of 2,5-xylenol to the freshly fertilized eggs of the marine sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis was determined by a static test. The EC50 (96 h) is 5 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
19 October 2004 to 21 October 2004
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
At 0 and 48 hours one sample from each test solution and control was analysed for mixed xylenols. Three QC samples were also prepared at each sampling interval at nominal concentrationsof 1.00 to 50.0 mg/L and these were analysed at the same time as the test samples. Analysis was performed by GC/FID.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Closed system static design due to a volatile test substance.
- Controls: Medium only and acetone control
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution): 0.1 mL of acetone / L of water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): none visible
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: not applicable
- Source: Cultures maintained at Springborn Smithers Laboratories, USA
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 hours old
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): not stated
- Peripheral shell growth removed prior to test initiation: not applicable
- Method of breeding: parthenogenesis
- Feeding during test
- Food type: Not fed during test
- Amount: Not fed during test
- Frequency: Not fed during test

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: not applicable
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): not applicable
- Type and amount of food: Unicellular green alga, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, 4 x 10E7 cells/mL and a suspension of YCT (yeast, cereal leaves and flaked fish food)
- Feeding frequency: daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): <20% mortality in the 48 hours prior to test initiation
Test type:
static
Water media type:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
Total hardness CaCO3: 190 mg/L
Test temperature:
19 - 20°C
pH:
pH 8.2 - 8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
8.8 - 9.6 mg/L ab
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Definitive test concentrations of 1.9, 3.8, 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
1.1, 2.4, 6.2, 12 and 27 mg/L (mean measured)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass vessels with Teflon lined screw tops. Each vessel contained 200 mL of test solution.
- Aeration: none (volatile test substance)
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): not applicable
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): not applicable
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 4
- Biomass loading rate: not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Fortified well water based on the formulation for hard water (US EPA method) and then filtration through an Amberlite XAD-7 resin column.
- Total organic carbon: 0.33 mg/L for dilution water
- Particulate matter: not stated
- Metals: none found
- Pesticides: none found
- Chlorine: not stated
- Alkalinity: 120 mg/L for dilution water
- Ca/mg ratio: hardness of 190 mg/L
- Conductivity: 500 µmhos/cm for dilution water
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: At 0 and 48 hours.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH:
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light / 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: 63 to 78 footcandles

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : The number of immobilised Daphnia in each test vessel were recorded at 24 and 48 hours. Daphnia were considered to be immobile if they were not able to swim within 15 seconds after gentle agitation of the test vessel.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: not applicable
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 10, 100 and 1000 mg/L and a dilution water control
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes, definitive test concentrations of 1.9, 3.8, 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/L nominal
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 6.2 - 27 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 6.2 - 12 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: not stated
- Observations on body length and weight: not applicable
- Other biological observations: After 24 hours of exposure, immobilisation was 100% at the 27 mg/L treatment level. After 48 hours of exposure, 95% of the daphnids at 12 mg/L were immobilised. No immobilisation was observed among daphnids exposed to the remaining concentrations tested nor the controls. Two mobile daphnids in the 6.2 mg/L treatment level were observed on the surface of the test solution and one daphnid in the 12 mg/L treatment was on the bottom of the test solution.
- Mortality of control: none observed
- Other adverse effects control: none observed
- Abnormal responses: none observed
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: none observed
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: none
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance was reported.

Throughout the exposure period the analytical measurements generally approximated the nominal concentrations. The low recoveries in the 1.00 mg/L QC samples resulted from limitations due to the nature of the test substance. Results for the QC samples were recoveries of 55.1 - 60.8% for 1.00 mg/L and 92.1 - 98.8% for the 10.0 and 50.0 mg/L samples, therefore appropriate precision was demonstrated.

After 24 hours of exposure, immobilisation was 100% at the 27 mg/L treatment level. After 48 hours of exposure, 95% of the daphnids at 12 mg/L were immobilised. No immobilisation was observed among daphnids exposed to the remaining concentrations tested nor the controls. Two mobile daphnids in the 6.2 mg/L treatment level were observed on the surface of the test solution and one daphnid in the 12 mg/L treatment was on the bottom of the test solution.

Table 1: Concentrations of ethyl phenols measured in exposure solutions during a 48 hours static exposure of Daphnia magna

Nominal concentration (mg/L)

Measured concentration (mg/L)

0 hour

48 hours

Mean

% of nominal

Control

<0.14

<0.14

NA

NA

Solvent controla

<0.14

<0.14

NA

NA

1.9

1.2

1.0

1.1

57

3.8

2.4

2.3

2.4

63

7.5

6.2

6.3

6.2

83

15

12

11

12

80

30

26

28

27

91

NA = not applicable
a= acetone was used in the solvent control and in each test vessel at a concentration of 0.1mL/L

 

Table 2: Mean measured concentrations tested, corresponding cumulative percent, number of immobilised Daphnia and observations recorded during the 48 hour static exposure of ethyl phenols to Daphnia magna

Mean measured concentration (mg/L)

Cumulative percent immobilisation (%)a

24 hours

48 hours

A

B

C

D

Mean

A

B

C

D

Mean

Control

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

Solvent control

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

1.1

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

2.4

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

6.2

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0c

12

40
(2)

60
(3)

60
(3)

100
(5)

65b

100
(5)

80
(4)

100
(5)

100
(5)

95d

27

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100

a= Actual number of immobilised daphnids is presented in parentheses.
b= Several mobile daphnids were observed to be on the bottom of the test vessel.
c= Two mobile daphnids were observed to be on the surface of the test solution.
d= One mobile daphnid was observed to be on the bottom of the test vessel.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 24 hour EC50 for mobility was determined to be 9.0 mg/L.
The 48 hour EC50 for mobility was determined to be 11 mg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
20 October 2004 to 22 October 2004
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
At 0 and 48 hours one sample from each test solution and control was analysed for ethyl phenols. Three QC samples were also prepared at each sampling interval at nominal concentrationsof 1.00 to 50.0 mg/L and these were analysed at the same time as the test samples. Analysis was performed by GC/FID.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: solvent for test substance
- Eluate: not applicable
- Differential loading: not applicable
- Controls: Untreated media for control and acetone solvent control
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): organic solvent
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution): 0.10 mL acetone/L water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): none stated
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: not applicable
- Source: Cultures maintained at Springborn Smithers Laboratories, USA
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 hours old
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): not applicable
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): not applicable
- Valve height at study initiation, for shell deposition study (mean and range, SD): not applicable
- Peripheral shell growth removed prior to test initiation: not applicable
- Method of breeding: parthenogenetic
- Feeding during test
- Food type: Not fed during test
- Amount: Not fed during test
- Frequency: Not fed during test

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: not applicable
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): not applicable
- Type and amount of food: Unicellular green alga, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, 4 x 10E7 cells/mL and a suspension of YCT (yeast, cereal leaves and flaked fish food)
- Feeding frequency: daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): <20% mortality in the 48 hours prior to test initiation
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
Total hardness CaCO3: 190 mg/L
Test temperature:
19 - 21°C
pH:
pH 8.1-8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
8.7 - 9.5 mg/L ab (9.4 mg/L at test start)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 3.1, 6.3, 13, 25 and 50 mg/L
Mean measured: 2.0, 5.4, 11, 21 and 47 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass vessels with Teflon lined screw tops. Each vessel contained 200 mL of test solution.
- Aeration: none (volatile test substance)
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): not applicable
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): not applicable
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 4
- Biomass loading rate: not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Fortified well water based on the formulation for hard water (US EPA method) and then filtration through an Amberlite XAD-7 resin column.
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter: none observed
- Metals:none found
- Pesticides: none found
- Chlorine: not stated
- Alkalinity: 120 mg/L (as CaCO3)
- Ca/mg ratio: hardness of 190 mg/L
- Conductivity: 500 µmhos/cm for dilution water
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: At 0 and 48 hours.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH:
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light / 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: 77 to 96 footcandles

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : The number of immobilised Daphnia in each test vessel were recorded at 0 and 48 hours. Daphnia were considered to be immobile if they were not able to swim within 15 seconds after gentle agitation.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: approx. 2
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: not applicable
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 10, 100 and 1000 mg/L and 0.0010, 0.010, 0.10, 1.0 and 10 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study:yes
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 5.4-21 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
7.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 5.4-11 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: not stated
- Observations on body length and weight: not applicable
- Other biological observations: After 48 hours of exposure, 100% of the daphnids were immobilised in the 11, 21 and 47 mg/L treatment levels. No immobilisation or sublethal effects were observed in the daphnids exposed to the 2.0 and 5.4 mg/L treatments, nor in the controls.
- Mortality of control: none observed
- Other adverse effects control: none observed
- Abnormal responses: none observed
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: none observed
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: not applicable
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance reported.

Throughout the exposure period the analytical measurements generally approximated the nominal concentrations. The low recoveries in the 1.00 mg/L QC samples resulted from limitations due to the nature of the test substance. Results for the QC samples were recoveries of 63.4 - 63.5% for the 2.00 mg/L samples and 84.7 - 108% for the 10.0 and 50.0 mg/L samples, therefore appropriate precision was demonstrated.

After 48 hours of exposure, 100% of the daphnids were immobilised in the 11, 21 and 47 mg/L treatment levels. No immobilisation or sublethal effects were observed in the daphnids exposed to the 2.0 and 5.4 mg/L treatments, nor in the controls.

Table 1: Concentrations of mixed xylenols measured in exposure solutions during a 48 hour static exposure of Daphnia magna

Nominal concentration (mg/L)

Measured concentration (mg/L)

0 hour

48 hours

Mean

% of nominal

Control

<0.14

<0.14

NA

NA

Solvent controla

<0.14

<0.14

NA

NA

3.1

2.0

1.9

2.0

64

6.3

5.7

5.2

5.4

86

13

12

10

11

85

25

23

20

21

85

50

45

49

47

94

NA = not applicable
a= acetone was used in the solvent control and in each test vessel at a concentration of 0.1mL/L.

 

Table 2: Mean measured concentrations tested, corresponding cumulative percent, number of immobilisedDaphniaand observations recorded during the 48 hour static exposure of mixed xylenols to Daphnia magna

Mean measured concentration (mg/L)

Cumulative percent immobilisation (%)a

24 hours

48 hours

A

B

C

D

Mean

A

B

C

D

Mean

Control

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

Solvent control

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

2.0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

5.4

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0
(0)

0

11

80
(4)

60
(3)

60
(3)

40
(2)

60b

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100

21

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100

47

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100
(5)

100

a= Actual number of immobilised daphnids is presented in parentheses.
b= Several surviving daphnids were observed to be on the surface of the test solution.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 24 hour EC50 for mobility was determined to be 10.0 mg/L.
The 48 hour EC50 for mobility was determined to be 7.7 mg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
04 - 09 Mar 2019
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
adopted April 13, 2004
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: SANCO/3029/99 rev.4 11/07/00
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
Hessisches Ministerium für Umwelt, Klimaschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz; Wiesbaden; Germany
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: All test concentrations and the control
- Sampling method: Duplicate samples were taken at the start of from the freshly prepared test media. At test end duplicate samples were collected at the end of the test (after 48 h) by pouring together the contents of the test beakers of each treatment
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: The samples from test start were stored in a refrigerator (4 °C), protected from light until analysis was performed.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: A stock solution of 50 mg test item/L was prepared by dissolving 52.9 mg test item into 1058 mL test water by intense stirring for 10 min. Adequate volumes of this stock solution were diluted with test water to prepare the test media of the desired test loading rates.
- Controls: Test water, without test item
- Evidence of undissolved material: There were no remarkable observations. The solutions were clear and colourless.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Strain/clone: Straus, clone 5
- Source: In-house laboratory culture
- Age at test start: From 3.00 to 21.0 h old
- Feeding during test: No feeding during the test

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation conditions: Test was performed in the same medium as the culturing.
- Type and amount of food: Green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus
- Feeding frequency: At least on all working days

METHOD FOR PREPARATION AND COLLECTION OF EARLY INSTARS OR OTHER LIFE STAGES: Test organisms were not first brood progeny.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
2.5 mmol/L (= 250 mg/L) as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20.0 - 20.2 °C (Control)
20.1 - 20.4 °C (Test Item Concentrations)
pH:
7.8 (Control)
7.8 - 7.9 (Test Item Concentrations)
Dissolved oxygen:
8.7 - 9.0 (Control)
8.5 - 9.3 (Test Item Concentrations)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.43, 0.94, 2.1, 4.5 and 10 mg test item/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
Test vessel:
- Type: closed;with a conical glass stopper to avoid loss of the test item due to volatilisation
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: Glass beaker, 110 mL volume containing as much test medium as possible (i.e. the remaining head space was reduced to a technical possible minimum of some mL),
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 5

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Elendt M4 medium, according to the guideline OECD 202; Analytical grade salts and additives were added
- Alkalinity: 0.9 mmol/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: Test medium and culture medium were the same.
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Every 24 h

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light : 8 h dark
- Light intensity: 330 to 530 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Immobility (mobility of the daphnids was determined by visual observation after 24 and 48 h)

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: Non GLP range-finding test
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
6.71 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: No mortality occur within the control
- Other biological observations: After 48 h of exposure no immobilisation of the test animals was observed in the control and up to and including the loading rate of 4.5 mg test item/L. At the loading rate of 10 mg test item/L, all animals were immobile.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
The results indicate that the sensitivity of the daphnids was consistent with the level proposed by the OECD 202 guideline (EC50 (24 h) between 0.6 and 2.1 mg potassium dichromate/L).
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The EC50 (48 h) and the 95% confidence limits were calculated by binomial distribution, which is equivalent to the geometric mean of the highest loading rate showing no immobility and the lowest loading rate showing 100% immobility. The NOEL and LOEL after 24 and 48 h were calculated by Step-down Cochran Armitage test procedure. The software used to perform the statistical analysis was ToxRat Professional, Version 3.2.1, ToxRat Solutions GmbH.

Biological Results:

The 48 h NOEL was determined to be 4.50 mg test item/L. The 48 h LOEL was determined to be 10.0 mg test item/L and the 48 h EC50 value was calculated to be 6.71 mg test item/L. All reported results refer to nominal values since a UVCB substance was tested and the concentrations of the carbon content of the test item were within ± 20% of the measured initial concentrations during the test.

Table 1: Mobility of Daphnia magna

Nominal Concentration [mg/test item /L]

No. of Daphnia tested

No. of immobilised Daphnia after

 

%of immobilised Daphnia after

 

 

 

24 h

48 h

24 h

48 h

Control

20

0

0

0

0

0.43

20

0

0

0

0

0.94

20

0

0

0

0

2.1

20

0

0

0

0

4.5

20

0

0

0

0

10

20

10

20

50

100

Summary of Biological Results

Nominal Loading rate

% of immobilised daphnids after

[mg test item/L]

24 hours

48 hours

Control

0

0

0.43

0

0

0.94

0

0

2.1

0

0

4.5

0

0

10

50

100

EL50 [mg test item/L]:

10.0 

6.71 

95 % CI [mg test item/L]:

- - - 

4.50 - 10.0 

EL20 [mg test item/L]:

8.72 

n.d. 

95 % CI [mg test item/L]:

- - - 

n.d. 

EL10 [mg test item/L]:

8.12 

n.d. 

95 % CI [mg test item/L]:

- - - 

n.d. 

NOEL [mg test item/L]:

4.50

4.50 

LOEL [mg test item/L]:

 10.0 

 10.0 

Values refer to nominal loading rates; CI: Confidence interval; n.d.: not determinable; NOEL and LOEL were determined by Step-down Cochran Armitage test procedure, α = 0.05, one-sided greater.

Analytical Results:

The quantification of the carbon content of the test item in the test samples was performed by analysing the Total Organic Carbon content (TOC). The loading rates of the carbon content of the test item were determined in the duplicate test media samples from all test loading rates and the duplicate control samples from all sampling times. The mean measured values of the quantifiable samples are as follows:

Table 2: Summary of Analytical Results

Sample Description nominal loading rate [mg test item/L]

Total Organic Carbon TOC

[mg Carbon/L]1

RSD [%]

n

Control

 n.a.

n.a.

4

0.4

<LOQ

n.a.

4

0.94

<LOQ

n.a.

4

2.1

1.50

9

4

4.5

3.41

3

4

10

7.86

0

4

1 mean value of all measured samples per treatment group; RSD: relative standard deviation per treatment group; n: number of analysed samples; n.a.: not applicable

 

Table 3: Validity criteria

Criterion from the guideline

Outcome

Validity criterion fulfilled

In the control, including the control containing the solubilising agent, not more than 10% of the daphnids should have been immobilized.

0 %

Yes

The dissolved oxygen concentration at the end of the test should be ≥ 3 mg/L in control and test vessels.

8.5 mg O2/L

Yes

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
For further details please refer to “Any other information on results incl. tables”.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
11.72 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.096 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
12.43 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.115 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: DIN 38412, Part II (Daphnia short-time test), 1982
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
A dilution series was prepared so as to give 3 - 4 EC values in a range between EC0 and EC100, of which at least one values was abobe and one below EC50
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: own breeding
- Age: 6 - 24 h old daphnids
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
total hardness of 2.4 mmol/L
Test temperature:
20 °C
pH:
8.0 ± 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
> 2 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not specified
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 mL beakers filled with 20 mL test solution
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 1 animal per 2 mL solution

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- dilution water: acid capacity Ka of 0.8 mmol/L; total hardness of 2.4 mmol/L; a calcium to magnesium ratio of 4:1; a sodium to potassium ratio of 10:1
- Intervals of water quality measurement: pH and O2-content was measured after 48 h

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): ability to swim after 24 h and 48 h
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
7.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
19.24 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.178 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
22.11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.181 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: DIN 38412, Part II (Daphnia short-time test), 1982
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
A dilution series was prepared so as to give 3 - 4 EC values in a range between EC0 and EC100, of which at least one values was abobe and one below EC50
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: own breeding
- Age: 6 - 24 h old daphnids
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
total hardness of 2.4 mmol/L
Test temperature:
20 °C
pH:
8.0 ± 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
> 2 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not specified
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 mL beakers filled with 20 mL test solution
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 1 animal per 2 mL solution

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- dilution water: acid capacity Ka of 0.8 mmol/L; total hardness of 2.4 mmol/L; a calcium to magnesium ratio of 4:1; a sodium to potassium ratio of 10:1
- Intervals of water quality measurement: pH and O2-content was measured after 48 h

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): ability to swim after 24 h and 48 h
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 5.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
19.47 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.143 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
13.56 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.111 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
28.32 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.208 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: DIN 38412, Part II (Daphnia short-time test), 1982
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
A dilution series was prepared so as to give 3 - 4 EC values in a range between EC0 and EC100, of which at least one values was abobe and one below EC50
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: own breeding
- Age: 6 - 24 h old daphnids
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
total hardness of 2.4 mmol/L
Test temperature:
20 °C
pH:
8.0 ± 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
> 2 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not specified
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 mL beakers filled with 20 mL test solution
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 1 animal per 2 mL solution

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- dilution water: acid capacity Ka of 0.8 mmol/L; total hardness of 2.4 mmol/L; a calcium to magnesium ratio of 4:1; a sodium to potassium ratio of 10:1
- Intervals of water quality measurement: pH and O2-content was measured after 48 h

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): ability to swim after 24 h and 48 h
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 3.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
14.29 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.117 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
other: secondary source
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
not specifified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not specified
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
11.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
not specified
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
26.69 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.196 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
17.95 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.166 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
18.69 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.153 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
- Method: diluted with AFNOR (1974) reconstituted hard water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Acetone
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): < 0.1 mL/L of reconstituted water (ISO, 1980)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: from IRCHA Laboratory and cultured parthenogenetically in Pasteur Institute Laboratory since 1975
- Feeding during culture: Chlorella vulgaris (1.0 x 10^6 cells/daphnid/h)
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
200 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not given
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed tubes (covered with plastic stoppers)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: tubes filled with 10 mL test solution
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): assayed in duplicate with a minimun of 3 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): controls conducted, number of replicates not stated
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): vehicle controls conducted, number of replicates not stated

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 h (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilization

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 0.35, 1, 3.5, 10, 35, 100, and 350 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: concentrations were chosen to include concentrations which had given 0, 10, 90, and 100% immobilization
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
11.36 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Effect value originally given as 0.093 mmol/L and converted to mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes

Description of key information

Based on all available information (weight-of-evidence) and following an analogue read-across and worst case approach the 48h freshwater EC50 of 2.37 mg/L determined for Daphnia magna (Randall & Knopp, 1980) for 2,4 -xylenol and the 96h saltwater EC50 of 1.5 mg/L determined with eggs of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Falk-Petersen et al., 1985) for 2,6-xylenol represent the most sensitive effect values for acute toxicity to aquatic invertebrates for constituents of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) and are considered key values for the chemical safety assessment. This values are slightly lower than the EC50 48h of 6.71 mg/L (nominal) determined for the UVCB mixture Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) as a whole (Lührs, 2019).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
2.37 mg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
1.5 mg/L

Additional information

One experimental study is available investigating the short-term toxicity of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) to freshwater invertebrates (Lührs, 2019). The study was performed under static conditions according to OECD guideline 202 and GLP with the water flea Daphnia magna as test organism. The test organisms were exposed to nominal test item concentrations of 0.43, 0.94, 2.1, 4.5 and 10 mg test item/L. The exposure concentrations during the test were verified by total organic carbon measurements. The analysed concentrations of the carbon content of the test item were within ± 20% of the measured initial concentrations during the test. After 48 hours of exposure no immobilisation of the test animals was observed in the control and up to and including the loading rate of 4.5 mg test item/L. At the loading rate of 10 mg test item/L, all animals were immobile. The EC50 (48h) was determined to be 6.71 mg/L (geometric mean of the lowest concentration causing no immobilisation (4.5 mg test item/L) and the lowest concentration resulting in 100 % immobilisation (10 mg test item/L)).

 

Numerous further data on the acute toxicity to aquatic invertebrates are available for constituents of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0). These data are used to determine the hazard of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) by applying a weight of evidence and an analogue read-across approach. The studies were conducted with different species of marine and freshwater invertebrates. From the table below it can be seen that available data demonstrate effect values for acute toxicity to invertebrates in a range from 1.5 to ca. 100 mg/L. The most sensitive value for freshwater (Daphnia magna) was determined in the study by Randall & Knopp (1980) with an EC50 (48h) of 2.37 mg/L for 2,4-xylenol. For saltwater the most sensitive effect value is an EC50 (96h) of 1.5 mg/L determined in a test by Falk-Petersen et al. (1985) with sea urchin eggs of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis for 2,6-xylenol. These values are considered for PNEC derivation and risk assessment and for deriving environmental classification. For details on the read-across approach please refer to the analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13.

Acute effect value determined for Tar acids, Xylenol fraction:

Source

*

Species

Lührs, 2019

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (48h) = 6.71 mg/L

Acute effect values determined in the numerous studies on constituents of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction:

Source

*

Species

p-cresol

m-cresol

o-cresol

Kühn et al. 1988-1989

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (24h) = 4.9 mg/L

-

-

Kühn et al. 1989

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (48h) = 7.7 mg/L

-

-

DeGraeve et al., 1980

f

Daphnia pulicaria

EC50 (48h) = 22.7 mg/L

LC50 (48h) > 99.5 mg/L

EC50 (48h) > 94 mg/L

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis(eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 5 mg/L

EC50 (96h) ca. 30 mg/L

EC50 (96h) ca. 30 mg/L

Canton & Adema, 1978

f

Daphnia sp.

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 9.6 mg/L

Slooff et al., 1982-1983

f

various invertebrates

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 46 mg/L

Slooff, 1983

f

various invertebrates

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 10 mg/L

Carlson & Caple, 1977 & Koppermann et al., 1974

f

Daphnia magna

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 15.8 mg/L

Bayer, 1992

f

Daphnia magna

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 21 mg/L

Devillers, 1988

f

Daphnia magna

IC50 (24h) = 12.43 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 19.24 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 17.95 mg/L

 

2,3-xylenol

2,4-xylenol

2,5-xylenol

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis(eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 11.5 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 5.1 mg/L

EC50 (96h) ca. 5.0 mg/L

Snell & Moffat, 1992

f

Brachionus calyciflorus

-

LC50 (48h) = 8.6 mg/L

-

Randall & Knopp, 1980

f

Daphnia magna

-

EC50 (48h) = 2.37 mg/L

-

Devillers, 1988

f

Daphnia magna

IC50 (24h) = 13.56 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 11.72 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 11.36 mg/L

2,6-xylenol

3,4-xylenol

3,5-xylenol

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis(eggs)

EC50 (96h) ca. 1.5 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 5.3 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 14 mg/L

Devillers, 1988

f

Daphnia magna

IC50 (24h) = 14.29 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 18.69 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 22.11 mg/L

SIDS, 2010

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (48h) = 11.2 mg/L

-

-

2,3,5-trimethylphenol

2,3,6-trimethylphenol

2,4,6-trimethylphenol

Kühn et al. 1989

f

Daphnia magna

-

-

EC50 (48h) = 3.3 mg/L

Devillers, 1988

f

Daphnia magna

IC50 (24h) = 26.69 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 19.47 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 28.32 mg/L

4-ethylphenol

Mixed xylenols

Mixed ethylphenols

Kühn et al. 1989

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (48h) = 5.7 mg/L

-

-

Sayers, 2005

f

Daphnia magna

-

-

EC50 (48h) = 9 mg/L

Sayers, 2004

f

Daphnia magna

-

EC50 (48h) = 7.7 mg/L

-

* f = freshwater, m = marine