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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Key values (lowest effect value for each endpoint) used for the chemical safety assessment:

LC50 (96 h) (freshwater) = 4.4 mg/L (nominal) for Salmo trutta (read-across with p-cresol) (Howland, 1969)

EC50 (96 h) (marine) = 3.7 mg/L (nominal) for Gadus morrhua (read-across with 2,4-xylenol) (Falk-Petersen et al., 1985)

NOEC (32 d) (freshwater) = 1.35 mg/L (nominal) for Pimephales promelas (read-across with p-cresol) (Barron & Adelman, 1984)

EC50 (48 h) (freshwater) = 2.37 mg/L (nominal) for Daphnia magna (read-across with m-cresol) (Randall & Knopp, 1980)

EC50 (96 h) (marine) = 1.5 mg/L (nominal) for Strongylocentrotus droebachienesis (read-across with 2,6-xylenol) (Falk-Petersen et al., 1985)

NOEC (21 d) (freshwater) = 1.0 mg/L (nominal) for Daphnia magna (read-across with p-cresol) (Kühn et al., 1988; Kühn, 1989)

EbC50 (48 h) (freshwater) = 7.8 mg/L (nominal) for Desmodesmus subcapitata (read-across with p-cresol) (Kühn & Pattard, 1990)

NOErC (72 h) (freshwater) = 1.7 mg/L (mean measured) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (read-across with mixed xylenols) (Hoberg, 2005a)

EC75 (4 h) (nitrification inhibition) = 11.4 mg/L (not specified) for activated sludge (read-across with m-cresol) (Tomlinson et al., 1966)

TT (72 h) (growth inhibition) = 17 mg/L (nominal) for Entosiphon sulcatum (read-across with o-cresol) (Bringmann, 1978; Bringmann & Kühn, 1979,1980, 1981)

Additional information

Studies on the acute aquatic toxicity for fish, Daphnia and algae are available for Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0). Numerous further data on aquatic toxicity are available for the constituents of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction. The acute aquatic toxicity data for fish, Daphnia and algae indicates that Tar acid, xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) is slightly less toxic than some of its constituents. In a weight-of-evidence approach all data were considered and the lowest effect value for each endpoint was chosen as key value for the chemical safety assessment. Thus, even in cases where less sensitive values would be available for Tar acids, Xylenol fraction itself or from guideline studies which were conducted with standard organisms rather than non-standard species, these values were not considered in favour to base the hazard assessment and classification on a worst case.

For details on the read-across approach please refer to the analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13.

Results of the available studies on Tar acids, Xylenole fraction:

Source  Species

Short-term toxicity to fish

Lührs & Scheider, 2019

f

Oncorhynchus mykiss

LC50 (96h) = 7.07 mg/L

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Lührs, 2019

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (48h) = 6.71 mg/L

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Lührs & Schneider, 2019

f

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

ErC50 (72h) = 27.9 mg/L

ErC20 (72h) = 11 mg/L

* f = freshwater

Results of the available studies on constituents of Tar acids, Xylenole fraction:

Source

*

Species

p-cresol

m-cresol

o-cresol

Short-term toxicity to fish

Howland, 1969

f

various species

LC50 (96h) = 4.4 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 7.6 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 6.2 mg/L

DeGraeve et al., 1980

f

various species

LC50 (96h) = 7.9 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 8.9 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 8.4 mg/L

Saarikorski & Viluksela, 1982

f

Poecilia reticulata

-

LC50 (96h) = 23.12 mg/L

-

Wellens, 1982

f

Danio rerio

-

LC50 (96h) = 15.9 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 24 mg/L

Ruebelt et al., 1982

f

Leuciscus idus

LC50 (48h) = 11 mg/L

LC50 (48h) = 17 mg/L

LC50 (48h) = 14 mg/L

Hodson et al., 1984

f

Oncorhynchus mykiss

LC50 (96h) = 7.5 mg/L

-

-

Kanabur & Sangli, 1998

f

Lepidocephalichthys guntea

LC50 (96h) = 14 mg/L

-

-

Mattson et al., 1976

f

Pimephales promelas

LC50 (96h) = 19 mg/L

-

-

Sangli & Kanabur, 2000

f

Gambusia affinis

LC50 (96h) = 33 mg/L

-

-

Geiger et al., 1986

f

Pimephales promelas

LC50 (96h) = 16.5 mg/L

-

LC50 (96h) = 14 mg/L

Buzzel et al., 1968

f

Lepomis macrochirus

-

-

TLM (96h) > 11.5 mg/L

Devi & Sastri, 1987

f

Sarotherodon mossambicus

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 23.5 mg/L

Slooff et al., 1982-1983

f

various species

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 13 mg/L

Pickering & Henderson, 1966

f

various species

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 12.55 mg/L

Clemens & Sneed, 1959

f

Ictalurus punctatus

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 11.2 mg/L

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Gadus morrhua (eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 5 mg/L

EC50 (96h) > 30 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 12 mg/L

Long-term toxicity to fish

Barron & Adelman, 1984

f

Pimephales promelas

NOEC (32d) = 1.35 mg/L

-

-

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Kühn et al. 1988-1989

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (24h) = 4.9 mg/L

-

-

Kühn et al. 1989

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (48h) = 7.7 mg/L

-

-

DeGraeve et al., 1980

f

Daphnia pulicaria

EC50 (48h) = 22.7 mg/L

LC50 (48h) > 99.5 mg/L

EC50 (48h) > 94 mg/L

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis(eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 5 mg/L

EC50 (96h) ca. 30 mg/L

EC50 (96h) ca. 30 mg/L

Canton & Adema, 1978

f

Daphnia sp.

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 9.6 mg/L

Slooff et al., 1982-1983

f

various invertebrates

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 46 mg/L

Slooff, 1983

f

various invertebrates

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 10 mg/L

Carlson & Caple, 1977 & Koppermann et al., 1974

f

Daphnia magna

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 15.8 mg/L

Bayer, 1992

f

Daphnia magna

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 21 mg/L

Devillers, 1988

f

Daphnia magna

IC50 (24h) = 12.43 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 19.24 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 17.95 mg/L

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Solski & Piontek, 1987

f

Dugesia tigrina

EC10 (80d) = 2.0 mg/L

-

-

Kühn et al., 1988-1989

f

Daphnia magna

NOEC (21d) = 1.0 mg/L

-

-

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Slooff et al., 1983

f

Chlorella pyrenoidosa

-

-

NOEC (48h) = 34 mg/L

Slooff et al., 1983

f

Scenedesmus pannonicus

-

-

NOEC (48h) = 36 mg/L

Slooff et al., 1983

f

Selenastrum capricornutum(=Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata)

-

-

NOEC (48h) = 65 mg/L

Slooff, 1982

f

Selenastrumsp.

-

-

EC50 (48h) = 75 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 100 mg/L

Bringmann et al., 1975-1978

f

Microcystis aeruginosa

-

TGK** (8d) = 13 mg/L

TGK** (8d) = 6.8 mg/L

Kühn & Pattard, 1990

f

Desmodesmus subspicatus

EC50 (48h) = 21 mg/L

EC10 (48h) = 4.6 mg/L

-

-

 

2,3-xylenol

2,4-xylenol

2,5-xylenol

Short-term toxicity to fish

Geiger et al., 1985

f

Pimephales promelas

-

LC50 (96h) = 16.6 mg/L

-

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Gadus morrhua (eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 13 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 3.7 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 13 mg/L

Long-term toxicity to fish

Le Blanc, 1984

f

Pimephales promelas

-

NOEC (30d) = 1.5 mg/L

-

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis(eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 11.5 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 5.1 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 5.0 mg/L

Snell & Moffat, 1992

f

Brachionus calyciflorus

-

LC50 (48h) = 8.6 mg/L

-

Randall & Knopp, 1980

f

Daphnia magna

-

EC50 (48h) = 2.37 mg/L

-

Devillers, 1988

f

Daphnia magna

IC50 (24h) = 13.56 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 11.72 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 11.36 mg/L

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Snell & Moffat, 1992

f

Brachionus calyciflorus

-

NOEC (24h) = 2.0 mg/L

-

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Huang & Gloyna, 1967

f

Chlorella pyrenoidosa

NOEC (72h) = 50 mg/L

NOEC (72h) = 50 mg/L

NOEC (72h) = 50 mg/L

2,6-xylenol

3,4-xylenol

3,5-xylenol

Short-term toxicity to fish

SIDS, undated

f

Pimephales promelas

LC50 (96h) > 27 mg/L

-

-

SIDS, undated

f

Carassius auratus

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 22 mg/L

SIDS, undated

m

Pseudopleuronectes americanus

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 12 mg/L

Verschueren, 1983

f

Pimephales promelas

-

LC50 (96h) = 14 mg/L

-

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Gadus morrhua (eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 4 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 13 mg/L

EC50 (96h) > 30 mg/L

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis(eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 1.5 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 5.3 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 14 mg/L

Devillers, 1988

f

Daphnia magna

IC50 (24h) = 14.29 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 18.69 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 22.11 mg/L

SIDS, undated

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (48h) = 11.2 mg/L

-

-

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Huang & Gloyna, 1967

f

Chlorella pyrenoidosa

-

NOEC (72h) = 50 mg/L

NOEC (72h) = 50 mg/L

2,3,5-trimethylphenol

2,3,6-trimethylphenol

2,4,6-trimethylphenol

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Kühn et al. 1989

f

Daphnia magna

-

-

EC50 (48h) = 3.3 mg/L

Devillers, 1988

f

Daphnia magna

IC50 (24h) = 26.69 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 19.47 mg/L

IC50 (24h) = 28.32 mg/L

4-ethylphenol

Mixed xylenols

Mixed ethylphenols

Short-term toxicity to fish

Geiger et al., 1986

f

Pimephales promelas

LC50 (96h) = 10.4 mg/L

-

-

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Kühn et al. 1989

f

Daphnia magna

EC50 (48h) = 5.7 mg/L

-

-

Sayers, 2004

f

Daphnia magna

-

EC50 (48h) = 9 mg/L

-

Sayers, 2005

f

Daphnia magna

-

-

EC50 (48h) = 7.7 mg/L

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Hoberg, 2005a

f

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

-

EC50 (72h) > 22 mg/L

NOEC (72h) = 1.7 mg/L

-

Hoberg, 2005b

f

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

-

-

EC50 (72h) > 22 mg/L

NOEC (72h) = 5.2 mg/L

* f = freshwater, m = marine; ** TGK = Toxicity threshold, determined at 1% effect compared to control