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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5° C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
3.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of 2,4-xylenol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) of 3.7 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US-EPA: Acute Toxicities of Organic Chemicals to Fathead Minnows
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Test type:
flow-through
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 5.2, 8.6, 14.4, 24.0 and 40.0 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
16.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPP 72-1 (Fish Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
 Source: well water, 707.3 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
14 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
6.5 mg/l (84.5% of saturation)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
28.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Pimephales promelas

Reliability according to OECD/ICCA HPVC Program 1 (reliable without restrictions)

Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of p-cresol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) of 5 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on test solutions:
5 concentrations in the range of 11.8 to 66.2 mg/l tested (plus control)
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
28 d old; mean length: 20.9 mm; mean weight: 0.134 g
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
Lake Superior water: hardness 47.9 mg CaCO3/l; alkalinity 44.1 mg CaCO3/l;
Test temperature:
24.1 °C
pH:
pH 7.79
Dissolved oxygen:
7.0 mg/l
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
16.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
16.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

confidence limits (95%):
LC50 = EC50 = 15.9 - 17.0 mg/l
Affected fish lost schooling behaviour and swam near the
tank surface. They were hyperactive and overreactive to
external stimuli. They had increased respiration,
convulsions, and rigid musculature. Some hemorrhaging was
also apparent. They were deformed and lost equilibrium prior
to death.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: static bioassay
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
not specified

No precision qualifier reported

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
stock solutions were prepared with 50:50 acetone:water solution
Test organisms (species):
other: see results
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 2- to 9-inch
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
12 °C
Duration:
6 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
4.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
4.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
4.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
4.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
6 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
11.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
9.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
6 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
5.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
5.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
13.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Cyprinus carpio
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
15.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Pimephales promelas
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
57.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Ictalurus melas
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
39.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Ictalurus punctatus
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Lepomis macrochirus
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Perca fluviatilis
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The statistical methods of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949) were used for determining LC50 values, slope functions, and 95-percent confidence intervals.

Table 1: Test material concentrations (mg/L) in test solutions determined by fluorometric analysis during the experiments (Control = test solution without eggs).

Compound

Control

Cod

Sea urchin

 

1 day

4 days

2 days

4 days

2 days

4 days

Phenol

10.27

9.69

10.66

7.67

10.41

10.39

o-cresol

10.17

9.88

10.84

8.45

10.45

9.97

m-cresol

10.44

10.46

10.30

10.06

10.42

10.20

p-cresol

10.30

10.36

11.17

10.59

10.78

10.38

2,3-xylenol

9.48

10.33

10.39

9.08

10.82

9.78

2,4-xylenol

10.11

10.34

10.91

7.27

10.67

9.78

2,5-xylenol

10.37

10.59

10.44

8.68

10.69

10.37

2,6-xylenol

10.34

7.45

10.37

9.09

10.53

9.24

3,4-xylenol

10.37

10.30

10.65

8.32

10.78

10.53

3,5-xylenol

10.48

10.34

10.10

8.56

10.59

9.73

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of p-cresol to fish was determined with a static bioassay on several freshwater species. The highest toxicity is a 96h LC50 value of 4.4 mg/L with Salmo trutta (Howland, 1969).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
determination of oxygen consumption as a measure for toxic effect
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Lepidocephalichthys guntea (freshwater fish)
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Hardness:
80-86 mgL CaCO3
Test temperature:
27-29 °C
pH:
7.0-7.3
Dissolved oxygen:
7.0-7.2 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
not specified

RS-Freetext:
LC50 (24 h) = 21.0 (16.42 - 26.86) mg/l
LC50 (48 h) = 18.0 (14.70 - 22.03) mg/l
LC50 (72 h) = 16.0 (13.20 - 19.39) mg/l
LC50 (96 h) = 14.0 (11.82 - 16.58) mg/l

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: Test Procedure of the Abwasserabgabengesetzentwurf (Deutscher Bundestag 1974)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Leuciscus idus
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
13 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Basic data given
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: static bioassay
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Gambusia affinis
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
33 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "c" (calculated)
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
US EPA, Methods for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians. Nat. Environm. Res. Center, Corvallis (1974)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Details on test organisms:
Mean length/mean weight of Onkorhynchus mykiss: 7.9 cm/6.0 g
Mean length/mean weight of Pimephales promelas: 4.9 cm/1.6 g
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
 Source: well water, 707.3 mg CaCO3/l, Conductance: 1212.3 µmhos/cm at 25 degrees C
Test temperature:
14 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
6.5 mg/l (84.5% of saturation)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
55.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Pimephales promelas
sublethal effects of Oncorhynchus mykiss: hyperactivity, rapid operculation,
sensitive to disturbance; unusual gathering at the surface
sublethal effects of Pimephales promelas: loss of equilibrium, erratic swiming and
twitching at a test substance concentration of 49.8 mg/L

Reliability according to OECD/ICCA HPVC Program 1 (reliable without restrictions)

Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5° C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of m-cresol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) > 30 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
stock solutions were prepared with 50:50 acetone:water solution
Test organisms (species):
other: see results
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 2- to 9-inch
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
12 °C
Duration:
6 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
6 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
10.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
10.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
6 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
11.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The statistical methods of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949) were used for determining LC50 values, slope functions, and 95-percent confidence intervals.

Table 1: Test material concentrations (mg/L) in test solutions determined by fluorometric analysis during the experiments (Control = test solution without eggs).

Compound

Control

Cod

Sea urchin

 

1 day

4 days

2 days

4 days

2 days

4 days

Phenol

10.27

9.69

10.66

7.67

10.41

10.39

o-cresol

10.17

9.88

10.84

8.45

10.45

9.97

m-cresol

10.44

10.46

10.30

10.06

10.42

10.20

p-cresol

10.30

10.36

11.17

10.59

10.78

10.38

2,3-xylenol

9.48

10.33

10.39

9.08

10.82

9.78

2,4-xylenol

10.11

10.34

10.91

7.27

10.67

9.78

2,5-xylenol

10.37

10.59

10.44

8.68

10.69

10.37

2,6-xylenol

10.34

7.45

10.37

9.09

10.53

9.24

3,4-xylenol

10.37

10.30

10.65

8.32

10.78

10.53

3,5-xylenol

10.48

10.34

10.10

8.56

10.59

9.73

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of m-cresol to fish was determined with a static bioassay on several freshwater species. The highest toxicity is a 96h LC50 value of 7.6 mg/L with Salvelinus fontinalis (Howland, 1969).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1974
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
similar to standard static bioassay
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
19 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

RS-Freetext:
LC50 (1 h) = 30 mg/l
LC50 (24 h) = 26 mg/l
LC50 (48 h) = 21 mg/l
LC50 (72 h) = 21 mg/l
concentrations are nominal values
endpoint: complete immobilization, equated to death
O2 was =< 4 mg/l during the test

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: Test Procedure of the Abwasserabgabengesetzentwurf (Deutscher Bundestag 1974)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Leuciscus idus
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
17 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
22 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay according to Saarikoski and Viluksela 1981
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Poecilia reticulata
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
26 +/- 1
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
23.12 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: Pruefrichtlinie UBA (summer 1980)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
22 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
15.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5° C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of 3,5-xylenol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) > 30 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US-EPA: Acute Toxicities of Organic Chemicals to Fathead Minnows
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Test type:
flow-through
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 10.5, 16.1, 24.8, 38.2, 58.9
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
10.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5° C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
13 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of 2,3-xylenol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) of 13 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5° C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of 2,6-xylenol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) of 4 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
other: secondary source
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
not specifified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
8 d
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not specified
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 27 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 12th Ed. Amer. Public Hlth. Assn., Amer. Water Works Assn., and Water Polln. Control Fed., New York (1965)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
other: TLm
Effect conc.:
11.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: 100% survival

TLm: median tolerance limit

Interpreted as LC0, since the endpoint is related to 100% survival

Another value, obtained from literature is reported:

TLm = 10.9 mg/l.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ictalurus punctatus
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
15.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
11.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
69 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
69 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
66.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
69 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
15.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

Results are reported as LD (lethal dose).

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPP 72-1 (Fish Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
concentrations were monitored by HPLC or GC daily during the test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
 Source: well water, 707.3 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
14 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
6.5 mg/l (84.5% of saturation)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
18.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Pimephales promelas

Reliability according to OECD/ICCA HPVC Program 1 (reliable without restrictions)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Principles of method if other than guideline:
APHA: Standard Methods for the examination of water and Waste Water (1980)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Sarotherodon mossambicus
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
23.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other test substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
12 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of o-cresol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) of 12 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US-EPA: Acute Toxicities of Organic Chemicals to Fathead Minnows
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: bioassay test
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
NaOH was used to increase the solubility of the test substance. The pH of the stock solution was then adjusted to that of lake water.
5 concentrations in the range of 8.26 to 46.4 mg/l tested (plus control)
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
29 d old; mean length: 17.9 mm; mean weight: 0.083 g
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Lake Superior water: hardness 46.8 mg CaCO3/l; alkalinity 44.4 mg CaCO3/l;
Test temperature:
24.6 °C
pH:
pH 7.7
Dissolved oxygen:
6.9 mg/l
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour

confidence limits (95%):
LC50 = EC50 = 13.2 - 14.8 mg/l
Affected fish lost schooling behaviour and swam near the
tank surface. They were hyperactive and overreactive to
external stimuli. They had increased respiration. They were also darkly colored. Equilibrium loss was not observed prior death.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
stock solutions were prepared with 50:50 acetone:water solution
Test organisms (species):
other: see results
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
12 °C
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salmo trutta
Duration:
6 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
9.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
6 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Salvelinus fontinalis
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The statistical methods of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949) were used for determining LC50 values, slope functions, and 95-percent confidence intervals.

Table 1: Test material concentrations (mg/L) in test solutions determined by fluorometric analysis during the experiments (Control = test solution without eggs).

Compound

Control

Cod

Sea urchin

 

1 day

4 days

2 days

4 days

2 days

4 days

Phenol

10.27

9.69

10.66

7.67

10.41

10.39

o-cresol

10.17

9.88

10.84

8.45

10.45

9.97

m-cresol

10.44

10.46

10.30

10.06

10.42

10.20

p-cresol

10.30

10.36

11.17

10.59

10.78

10.38

2,3-xylenol

9.48

10.33

10.39

9.08

10.82

9.78

2,4-xylenol

10.11

10.34

10.91

7.27

10.67

9.78

2,5-xylenol

10.37

10.59

10.44

8.68

10.69

10.37

2,6-xylenol

10.34

7.45

10.37

9.09

10.53

9.24

3,4-xylenol

10.37

10.30

10.65

8.32

10.78

10.53

3,5-xylenol

10.48

10.34

10.10

8.56

10.59

9.73

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of o-cresol to fish was determined with a static bioassay on several freshwater species. The highest toxicity is a 96h LC50 value of 6.2 mg/L with Salmo trutta (Howland, 1969).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater, 11th Ed., Amer. Pub. Health Assn., New York
(1960)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
12.55 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Pimephales promelas
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
20.78 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Lepomis macrochirus
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
23.25 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Carassius auratus
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
18.85 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Lebistes reticulata
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
13.42 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: in hard water; Pimephales promelas

Results are reported as TLM (median tolerance limits).

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: Test Procedure of the Abwasserabgabengesetzentwurf (Deutscher Bundestag 1974)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Leuciscus idus
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
20 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
static bioassay
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
13 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: tap water; Oncorhynchus mykiss
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
other: NOLC Oncorhynchus mykiss
Effect conc.:
3.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
41 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Dutch standard water; Oryzias latipes
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
other: NOLC: Oryzias latipes
Effect conc.:
32 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
34 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Dutch standard water; Pimephales promelas
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
other: NOLC: Pimephales promelas
Effect conc.:
30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

Further results, obtained from literature are reported:

Leuciscus idus: 48 -LC50 = 18 mg/l

Poecilia reticulata: 48h-LC50 = 38 mg/l (48h-NOLC = 27 mg/l)

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: DIN 38412
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
pH:
7.5 +/-0.3
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
20 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Danio rerio
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
24 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Danio rerio
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Danio rerio
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ; Leuciscus idus
Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5° C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
13 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of 3,4-xylenol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) of 13 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Qualifier:
no guideline required
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Data from handbook.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
fish embryo acute toxicity (FET)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Incubation of fertilized fish eggs in seawater containing test substance. 96-hour EC50 values were determined.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
100 mL filtered seawater mixed with test substance.
Test organisms (species):
Gadus morrhua
Details on test organisms:
Fertilized eggs were exposed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Eggs were exposed for 4 days, starting during first day after fertilization. Additionally one experimental series carried out on fish eggs during organogenesis (on days 12-16 after fertilization) and one series on fish larvae from six days after hatching.
Test temperature:
5° C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 and 30 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- 50 eggs or 20 larvae were placed in test beakers
- Beakers were covered with aluminium foil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
several other substances
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
13 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: death, pathology, inhibition of cleavage and differentiation, pigment defects

In parallel tests with larvae (6 days after hatching) pigmentation was totally inhibited at 10 and 30 mg/L. Exposure to 3 mg/L gave only poor pigmentation and at 1 mg/L larvae were already paler than the control.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

Effects of 2,5-xylenol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of Gadus morrhua. The eggs and larvae were monitored for sublethal effects. An EC50 (96h) of 13 mg/L was derived.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
14 - 26 Mar 2019
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Version / remarks:
adopted July 17, 1992
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.1 (Acute Toxicity for Fish)
Version / remarks:
May 30, 2008
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
Hessisches Ministerium für Umwelt, Klimaschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz, Wiesbaden, Germany
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: All test concentrations and the control.
- Sampling method: Duplicate samples were taken at the start of from the freshly prepared test media. At test end duplicate samples were collected at the end of the test (after 96 h) from the approximate centre of the aquaria. The samples of 10 mg test item/L were already taken after 24 h because all fish were dead.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: The samples from test start were stored in a refrigerator (4 °C), protected from light until analysis was performed.
- Others: From the test start samples the samples of the concentration of 5 mg test item/l and one of the samples of 2.5 mg test item/L were not analysed because of damage.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: A stock solution of 300 mg test item/L was prepared by dissolving 320.8 mg test item into 1069.33 mL test water by intense stirring for 10 min. Adequate volumes of this stock solution were diluted with test water to prepare the test media of the desired test concentrations.
- Controls: In the control, test water was used without addition of the test item.
- Evidence of undissolved material: The test media were clear and colourless.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Forellenzuchtbetrieb Störk, 88348 Bad Saulgau, Germany
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Juveniles
- Length at study initiation: 5.28 cm ± 0.2 cm
- Weight at study initiation: 1.48 g ± 0.2 g

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: least 12 days
- Acclimation conditions: They were held in water of the quality to be used in the test for at least seven days immediately before testing under the following conditions: 16 hours photoperiod daily, 13 - 17 °C, at least 80% of the air saturation value,
- Feeding frequency during acclimation: Three times per week or daily until 24 h before the test was started.
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): During the last 7 days prior to the start of the test no fish (0%) died.

FEEDING DURING TEST : no feeding during the test
- Frequency: Three times per week or daily until 24 hours before the test was started

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
2.5 mmol/L (= 250.0 mg/L) as CaCO3
Test temperature:
13.5 - 13.7 (Control)
13.4 - 13.9 (Test Item concentrations)
pH:
7.6 - 7.8 (Control)
7.6 - 7.8 (Test Item concentrations)
Dissolved oxygen:
97 - 100% (Control)
95 - 100% (Test Item concentrations)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.63, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 16 litre glass aquaria with 12 litre test medium
- Aeration: The test media were slightly aerated during the test.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 7
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: 0.865 g fish/L test water

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: In deionised water (conductivity ≤ 10 µScm-1) analytical grade salts were added.
- Alkalinity: 0.8 mmol/L
- Ca/mg ratio: 4:1 (based on molarity)
- Na/K ratio: 10:1 (based on molarity)
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: The water temperature, pH-values and the dissolved oxygen concentrations were determined daily in the test media of each treatment group.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light : 8 h dark; 30 min dawn/dusk period was provided
- Light intensity: 510 to 660 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: The test fish were observed at test start and after approximately 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h test duration for sublethal effects and mortality. Dead fish were removed at least once daily and discarded.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes, a non-GLP test was performed
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.07 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Biological observations: At the concentrations up to 5.0 mg test item/L, all fish survived until the end of the experiment and no signs of intoxication occurred. At 10.0 mg test item/L, all fish were dead after 24 hours.
- Mortality of control: In the control all fish survived until the end of the experiment and no signs of intoxication occurred.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50 was calculated as the geometric mean of the lowest concentration causing no mortality (5.0 mg test item/L) and the lowest concentration resulting in 100 % mortality (10.0 mg test item/L). The NOEC, the LOEC, the LC0 and the LC100 were determined directly from the raw data.
The software used to perform the statistical analysis was ToxRat Professional, Version 3.2.1, ToxRat® Solutions GmbH.

Biological Results:

Table 1: Observed Mortality

Nominal Concentration

Mortality

mg test item/L

0 h

2 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

 

# mort

# mort

# mort

# mort

# mort

# mort

Control

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.63

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.25

0

0

0

0

0

0

2.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

5.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0

7

7

7

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LC50 [mg test item/L]

n.d.

n.d.

7.07

7.07

7.07

7.07

95 % CI mg test item/L]

n.d.

n.d.

5.0 - 10.0

5.0 - 10.0

5.0 - 10.0

5.0 - 10.0

# mort:Cumulative number of dead fish; n.d.: not determinable; CI.: Confidence intervalValues refer to nominal test concentrations.

Table 2: Cumulative mortality and Sublethal Effects

Mortality and Sublethal Effects

Nominal Concentrations [mg test item/L]

Time

 

Control

0.63

1.25

2.5

5.0

10

0 h

#mort

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

#symp

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

symp

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 h

#mort

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

#symp

0

0

0

0

0

7

 

symp

-

-

-

-

-

TS,DC,DA

24 h

#mort

0

0

0

0

0

7

 

#symp

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

symp

-

-

-

-

-

-

48 h

#mort

0

0

0

0

0

7

 

#symp

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

symp

-

-

-

-

-

-

72 h

#mort

0

0

0

0

0

7

 

#symp

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

symp

-

-

-

-

-

-

96 h

#mort

0

0

0

0

0

7

 

#symp

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

symp

-

-

-

-

-

-

# mort:Cumulative number of dead fish            

# symp:              Number of fish with sublethal effects  

DA: distended abdomen           

DC: dark colouration     

TS: tumbling during swimming 

Analytical Results:

The quantification of the carbon content of the test item Tar acid xylenol fraction, 2,4/2,5 rich in the test samples was performed by analysing the Total Organic Carbon content (TOC). The loading rates of the carbon content of the test item were determined in the duplicate test media samples from test loading rates 0.63, 1.25 and 10 mg test item/L and the duplicate control samples from all sampling times. One of the duplicate samples of test start and the duplicate samples of test end of the concentration of 2.5 mg test item/L as well as the duplicate samples of the aged test media of the samples of 5 mg test item/L were analysed. The mean measured values of the quantifiable samples are 8.16 mg Carbon/L in the samples of 10 mg test item/L , 4.02 mg test item/L in the samples of 5.0 mg test item/L, 1.89 mg test item/L in the samples of 2.5 mg test item/L and 1.13 mg test item/L in the samples of 1.25 mg test item/L.

Table 3: Summary of Analytical Results

Sample Description

Total Organic Carbon

nominal concentration

TOC

RSD

[mg test item/L]

[mg Carbon/L]1

[%]

n

Control

n.a.

n.a.

4

0.63

<LOQ

n.a.

4

1.25

1.13

9

4

2.5

1.89

5

3

5.0

4.02

1

2

10

8.16

2

4

1mean value of all measured samples per treatment group

RSD: relative standard deviation per treatment group

n: number of analysed samples

n.a.: not applicable

Table 4: Validity criteria

Criterion from the guideline

Outcome

Validity criterion fulfilled

The mortality in the control(s) should not exceed 10% (or one fish if less than ten are used) at the end of the test

0%

Yes

The dissolved oxygen concentration must have been at least 60 per cent of the air

saturation value throughout the test

Did not fall below 95%

Yes

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
For further details please refer to “Any other information on results incl. tables”.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
other: secondary source
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
not specifified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Carassius auratus
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not specified
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
22 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: effect value originally reproted as TLm
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
other: secondayr source
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
not specifified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pseudopleuronectes americanus
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- unaerated
- survival measured at four periods during the exposure period from 24 to 96 hours post treatment
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
12 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable

Description of key information

Based on all available information (weight-of-evidence) and following a worst case approach the 96h freshwater LC50 of 4.4 mg/L determined for Salmo trutta (Howland, 1969) for p-cresol and the 96h saltwater EC50 of 3.7 mg/L determined with eggs of Gadus morrhua (Falk-Petersen et al., 1985) for 2,4-xylenol represent the most sensitive effect values for acute toxicity to fish for constituents of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) and are considered key values for the chemical safety assessment. This values are slightly lower than the LC50 96h of 7.07 mg/L (nominal) determined for the UVCB mixture Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) as a whole (Lührs & Scheider, 2019).


Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
4.4 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish:
3.7 mg/L

Additional information

One experimental study is available investigating the short-term toxicity of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0) to freshwater fish (Lührs & Schneider, 2019). The study was performed under static conditions according to OECD guideline 203 and GLP. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was exposed to nominal test item concentrations of 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/L. The exposure concentrations during the test were verified by total organic carbon measurements. The analysed concentrations of the carbon content of the test item were within ± 20% of the measured initial concentrations during the test. In the control and at the concentrations up to 5.0 mg test item/L, all fish survived until the end of the experiment and no signs of intoxication occurred. At 10.0 mg test item/L, all fish were dead after 24 hours. The LC50 (96h) was determined to be 7.07 mg/L (geometric mean of the lowest concentration causing no mortality (5.0 mg test item/L) and the lowest concentration resulting in 100 % mortality (10 mg test item/L)).

Numerous further data on the acute toxicity to fish are available for constituents of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction (CAS 84989-06-0). The determined effect values (LC50, 96h) for acute toxicity to fish ranges between 3.7 mg/L and 33 mg/L. As a worst case approach the lowest effect values of the constituents were considered key values for the chemical safety assessment by applying a weight of evidence and an analogue read-across approach. The most sensitive value for freshwater was determined for Salmo trutta with an LC50 (96h) of 4.4 mg/L for p-cresol (Howland, 1969). For saltwater the most sensitive effect value is an EC50 (96h) of 3.7 mg/L determined for 2,4-xylenol in a fish egg test with Gadus morrhua (Falk-Petersen et al., 1985). These values are considered for PNEC derivation and risk assessment and for deriving environmental classification. For details on the read-across approach please refer to the analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13.

Acute effect value determined for Tar acids, Xylenol fraction:

Source

*

Species

Lührs & Scheider, 2019

f

Oncorhynchus mykiss

LC50 (96h) = 7.07 mg/L

Acute effect values determined in the numerous studies available on constituents of Tar acids, Xylenol fraction:

Source

*

Species

p-cresol

m-cresol

o-cresol

Howland, 1969

f

various species

LC50 (96h) = 4.4 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 7.6 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 6.2 mg/L

DeGraeve et al., 1980

f

various species

LC50 (96h) = 7.9 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 8.9 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 8.4 mg/L

Saarikorski & Viluksela, 1982

f

Poecilia reticulataoecilia reticulata

-

LC50 (96h) = 23.12 mg/L

-

Wellens, 1982

f

Danio rerio

-

LC50 (96h) = 15.9 mg/L

LC50 (96h) = 24 mg/L

Ruebelt et al., 1982

f

Leuciscus idus

LC50 (48h) = 11 mg/L

LC50 (48h) = 17 mg/L

LC50 (48h) = 14 mg/L

Hodson et al., 1984

f

Oncorhynchus mykiss

LC50 (96h) = 7.5 mg/L

-

-

Kanabur & Sangli, 1998

f

Lepidocephalichthys guntea

LC50 (96h) = 14 mg/L

-

-

Mattson et al., 1976

f

Pimephales promelas

LC50 (96h) = 19 mg/L

-

-

Sangli & Kanabur, 2000

f

Gambusia affinis

LC50 (96h) = 33 mg/L

-

-

Geiger et al., 1986

f

Pimephales promelas

LC50 (96h) = 16.5 mg/L

-

LC50 (96h) = 14 mg/L

Buzzel et al., 1968

f

Lepomis macrochirus

-

-

TLM (96h) > 11.5 mg/L

Devi & Sastri, 1987

f

Sarotherodon mossambicus

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 23.5 mg/L

Slooff et al., 1982-1983

f

various species

-

-

LC50 (48h) = 13 mg/L

Pickering & Henderson, 1966

f

various species

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 12.55 mg/L

Clemens & Sneed, 1959

f

Ictalurus punctatus

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 11.2 mg/L

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Gadus morrhua (eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 5 mg/L

EC50 (96h) > 30 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 12 mg/L

 

2,3-xylenol

2,4-xylenol

2,5-xylenol

Geiger et al., 1985

f

Pimephales promelas

-

LC50 (96h) = 16.6 mg/L

-

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Gadus morrhua (eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 13 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 3.7 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 13 mg/L

2,6-xylenol

3,4-xylenol

3,5-xylenol

SIDS, 2010

f

Pimephales promelas

LC50 (96h) > 27 mg/L

-

-

SIDS, 2010

f

Carassius auratus

-

-

LC50 (96h) = 22 mg/L

SIDS, 2010

m

Pseudopleuronectes americanus

LC50 (96h) = 12 mg/L

-

-

Verschueren, 1983

f

Pimephales promelas

-

LC50 (96h) = 14 mg/L

-

Falk-Petersen et al., 1985

m

Gadus morrhua (eggs)

EC50 (96h) = 4 mg/L

EC50 (96h) = 13 mg/L

EC50 (96h) > 30 mg/L

4-ethylphenol

 

Geiger et al., 1986

f

Pimephales promelas

LC50 (96h) = 10.4 mg/L

-

-

* f = freshwater, m = marine