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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data is from peer reviewed journal
Justification for type of information:
Data is from peer reviewed journal
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As mention in below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test item to Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) was determined in a 96-hour static test according to the standards.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: Nicotine sulfate
- Molecular formula: C10H14N2.1/2H2O4S
- Molecular weight: 422.547
- Smiles notation: CN1CCC[C@H]1c2cccnc2.CN3CCC[C@H]3c4 cccnc4.OS(=O)(=O)O
- InChl: 1S/2C10H14N2.H2O4S/c2*1-12-7-3-5-10(12)9-4-2-6-11-8-9;1-5(2,3)4 /h2*2,4,6,8,10H, 3,5,7H2,1H3; (H2,1,2,3,4)/t2*10-;/m00./s1
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
- Chemical source: Sigma chemicals co
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Details on sampling
- Concentrations: 40.5 g/l Diluted (stirred)
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
Details on test organisms
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 48 – 50 days old
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0.17 grams

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
44.3 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
17.4 ° C
pH:
7.2
Dissolved oxygen:
8.9 mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal 0, 1.88, 3.75, 7.50, 15 and 30 mg/l concentrations were used
Details on test conditions:
Details on test conditions
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Tank
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 41 liter volume of tank were used

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water:
- Alkalinity: 42.3 mg/L CaCO3
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
15.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CI was 11.3 to 21.6 mg/l
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on the mortality of test organism Fathead Minnow by the chemical Nicotine sulfate exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 15.6 mg/l.
Executive summary:

Study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test item to Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) was determined in a 96-hour static test according to the standards. Test chemical 40.5 g/l were used and prepared by stirring. Test chemical analytically determined by Gas liquid chromatography. Test performed on 48-50 days old Pimephales promelas. Nominal concentrations 0, 1.88, 3.75, 7.50, 15 and 30 mg/l was used. Based on the mortality of test organism Fathead Minnow by the chemical Nicotine sulfate exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 15.6 mg/l. Based on the LC50, chemical was consider as toxic and can be consider to be classified as aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP classification criteria. But the chemical was readily biodegradable in water thus before exposure with the test fish, chemical degrade. Thus on that criteria chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Description of key information

Study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test item to Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) was determined in a 96-hour static test according to the standards. Test chemical 40.5 g/l were used and prepared by stirring. Test chemical analytically determined by Gas liquid chromatography. Test performed on 48-50 days old Pimephales promelas. Nominal concentrations 0, 1.88, 3.75, 7.50, 15 and 30 mg/l was used. Based on the mortality of test organism Fathead Minnow by the chemical Nicotine sulfate exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 15.6 mg/l. Based on the LC50, chemical was consider as toxic and can be consider to be classified as aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP classification criteria. But the chemical was readily biodegradable in water thus before exposure with the test fish, chemical degrade. Thus on that criteria chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
15.6 mg/L

Additional information

Various experimental data for the target compound Nicotine sulfate (65-30-5) and supporting studies were reviewed for the toxicity on the fish end point which are summarized as below: 

In the first key study for the target chemical Nicotine sulfate (65-30-5) from peer reviewed journal 1990, study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test item to Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) was determined in a 96-hour static test according to the standards. Test chemical 40.5 g/l were used and prepared by stirring. Test chemical analytically determined by Gas liquid chromatography. Test performed on 48-50 days old Pimephales promelas. Nominal concentrations 0, 1.88, 3.75, 7.50, 15 and 30 mg/l was used. Based on the mortality of test organism Fathead Minnow by the chemical Nicotine sulfate exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 15.6 mg/l. Based on the LC50, chemical was consider as toxic and can be consider to be classified as aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP classification criteria. But the chemical was readily biodegradable in water thus before exposure with the test fish, chemical degrade. Thus on that criteria chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

First study was supported by the second experimental study for the test chemical from peer reviewed journal 1988. Study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test item to Pimephales promelas was determined in a 96-hour static test according to the standards. Test chemical 100 mg/l were used and prepared by stirring. Test chemical analytically determined by Gas liquid chromatography. Test performed on 29 days old Pimephales promelas. Nominal concentrations 0, 2.96, 4.56, 7.02, 10.8 and 16.6 mg/l was used. In 2 liter tank different concentrations were added with 0.850 g/l Pimephales promelas. After the exposure for 96 hrs affected fish lost schooling behavior, were hyper- active and swam near the tank surface. They were over- reactive to external stimuli, had increased respiration, and darkly colored. Also had spinal deformities and lost equilibrium prior to death. Based on the mortality of test organism by the chemical Nicotine sulfate exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 12.2 mg/l. Based on the LC50, chemical was concluded as toxic and can be consider to be classified aquatic chronic 3 but as the chemical was readily biodegradable thus consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Similarly in accordance with another study from journal 1997, study was conducted to develop the procedures that relate modes of acute toxic action in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to chemical structures and properties. An empirically derived database for diverse chemical structures of acute toxicity and corresponding modes of toxic action was developed through joint toxic action studies, the establishment of toxicodynamic profiles, and behavioral and dose–response interpretation of 96-h LC50 tests. 28 - 30 d old juvenile test organisms were used for the study. The test was performed under the flow-through condition with temp of 25 ± 1°C. Test was conducted using Lake Superior water at 25±1°C. Aqueous toxicant concentrations were measured in tests with quality assurance criteria requiring 80% agreement between duplicate samples and 90 to 110% spike recovery. Flow-through exposures were conducted using cycling proportional, modified Benoit, or electronic diluters. Tests conducted which were conducted on the Benoit and electronic diluters did not have replicate tank exposures. Median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated using the Trimmed Spearman–Karber Method, with 95% confidence intervals being calculated when possible. Behavioral signs of stress identified for fathead minnows exposed to reference toxicants. Fish shows type III syndrome which indicates spontaneous locomotor activity, convulsion, spasms, tetany, scoliosis, lordosis, and/or hemorrhaging in the vertebral column. After the exposure of 96 hrs of chemical Nicotine sulfate with the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas), the LC50 was observed to be 13.8 mg/l. Based on the LC50 chemical was consider as toxic and classified as chronic 3 but as Nicotine sulfate was readily biodegrade when comes in contact with water, thus on that criteria it was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

In the fourth supporting study for the test chemical from experimental peer reviewed journal 1987, supports the classification of test chemical. Study was conducted to investigate the effect of test chemical on the mortality rate of fishes Pimephales promelas and Carassius auratus. According to the OECD guideline 202 test organisms were maintain in the appropriate system and follows all the criteria which meet the guideline. Chemical analyzed with a Hewlett-Packard 5840A gas chromatograph equipped with model 7671 A auto injector and also with FID. Both fishes obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Organisms not fed 24 hrs before and during the test. Test conducted in glass aquaria tank 60×30×30 cm deep. Tank divided into six compartments and one wide compartment with stainless steel screen divider. One standpipe were also present at the top. Test performed in duplicates with control which simultaneously run with the test chemical. Effect calculated by Trimmed Spearman- Karber method were used. As the test conducted on the two species of fish different effect concentrations were obtain at which 50 % mortality were observed. Based on the mortality of Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) by the exposure of Nicotine sulfate for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 19.7 mg/l. And based on the mortality of Carassius auratus (Goldfish), the LC50 was determine to be 13.1 mg/l. Based on the LC50 chemical was consider as toxic and classified as chronic 3 but as Nicotine sulfate was readily biodegrade when comes in contact with water, thus on that criteria it was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Similarly in the next study from the same source conducted on two different species of fish. Study was conducted to investigate the effect of test chemical Nicotine sulfate on the mortality rate of fishes Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) and Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) by providing the exposure period of 96hrs. According to the OECD guideline 202 test organisms were maintain in the appropriate system and follows all the criteria which meet the guideline. Chemical analyzed with a Hewlett-Packard 5840 A gas chromatograph equipped with model 7671 A auto injector and also with FID. Both fishes obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Organisms not fed 24 hrs before and during the test. Test conducted in glass aquaria tank 60×30×30 cm deep. Tank divided into six compartments and one wide compartment with stainless steel screen divider. One standpipe were also present at the top. Test performed in duplicates with control which simultaneously run with the test chemical. Effect calculated by Trimmed Spearman- Karber method were used. As the test conducted on the two species of fish different effect concentrations were obtain at which 50 % mortality were observed. Based on the mortality of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) by the exposure of Nicotine sulfate for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 7.31 mg/l. And based on the mortality of Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill), the LC50 was determine to be 4.31 mg/l. Based on the LC50 chemical was consider as toxic and classified as chronic 2 but as Nicotine sulfate was readily biodegrade when comes in contact with water, thus on that criteria it was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Based on the overall experimental studies it was observed that the chemical was slightly toxic but as when comes in contact with water it readily degrade and thus on all criteria, it can be concluded that the chemical was nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.