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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data is from peer reviewed journal
Justification for type of information:
Data is from peer reviewed journal
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: As mention in below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test chemical to Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) was determined in a 96-hour static test according to the standards.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Details on sampling
- Concentrations: 40.5 g/l Diluted (stirred)
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
Details on test organisms
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 48 – 50 days old
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0.17 grams

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
44.3 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
17.4 ° C
pH:
7.2
Dissolved oxygen:
8.9 mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal 0, 1.88, 3.75, 7.50, 15 and 30 mg/l concentrations were used
Details on test conditions:
Details on test conditions
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Tank
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 41 liter volume of tank were used

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Alkalinity: 42.3 mg/L CaCO3
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
15.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CI was 11.3 to 21.6 mg/l
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on the mortality of Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) by the test chemical exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 15.6 mg/l.
Executive summary:

Study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test chemical on the mortality of Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow). Study conducted for 96-hour under the static system. Test chemical 40.5 g/l were used and prepared by stirring. Test chemical analytically determined by Gas liquid chromatography. Test performed on 48-50 days old Pimephales promelas. Nominal concentrations selected for the study was 0, 1.88, 3.75, 7.50, 15 and 30 mg/l. Based on the mortality of test organism Fathead Minnow by the chemical exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 15.6 mg/l. Based on the LC50 value, chemical was consider as toxic and can be consider to be classified in aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP classification criteria. The chemical was readily biodegradable in water, thus before exposure with the test fish, chemical degrades rapidly. Thus on that criteria, chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Description of key information

Study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test chemical on the mortality of Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow). Study conducted for 96-hour under the static system. Test chemical 40.5 g/l were used and prepared by stirring. Test chemical analytically determined by Gas liquid chromatography. Test performed on 48-50 days old Pimephales promelas. Nominal concentrations selected for the study was 0, 1.88, 3.75, 7.50, 15 and 30 mg/l. Based on the mortality of test organism Fathead Minnow by the chemical exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 15.6 mg/l. Based on the LC50 value, chemical was consider as toxic and can be consider to be classified in aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP classification criteria. The chemical was readily biodegradable in water, thus before exposure with the test fish, chemical degrades rapidly. Thus on that criteria, chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
15.6 mg/L

Additional information

Based on the various experimental data from peer reviewed journal, studies were carried out for the determination of toxicity of test chemical on the mortality rate of fishes. The studies are as mentioned below:

 

Study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test chemical on the mortality of Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow). Study conducted for 96-hour under the static system. Test chemical 40.5 g/l were used and prepared by stirring. Test chemical analytically determined by Gas liquid chromatography. Test performed on 48-50 days old Pimephales promelas. Nominal concentrations selected for the study was 0, 1.88, 3.75, 7.50, 15 and 30 mg/l. Based on the mortality of test organism Fathead Minnow by the chemical exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be 15.6 mg/l. Based on the LC50 value, chemical was consider as toxic and can be consider to be classified in aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP classification criteria. The chemical was readily biodegradable in water, thus before exposure with the test fish, chemical degrades rapidly. Thus on that criteria, chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Similar study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of the test chemical to Pimephales promelas was determined for a 96-hour. Test conducted under the static system according to the standards. Chemical analytically determined by Gas liquid chromatography. Test chemical 100 mg/l were used and prepared by stirring. Study conducted on the nominal concentrations 0, 2.96, 4.56, 7.02, 10.8 and 16.6 mg/l. 29 days old Pimephales promelas was used a test organism. In 2 liter tank, different concentrations were added with 0.850 g/l Pimephales promelas. After the exposure period of 96 hrs, affected fish lost schooling behavior, were hyper- active and swam near the tank surface. They were over- reactive to external stimuli, had increased respiration, and darkly colored. Also had spinal deformities and lost equilibrium prior to death. Based on the mortality of test organism by the chemical exposure for 96 hrs, the LC50 value was determine to be 12.2 mg/l. Based on the LC50 value, chemical consider as toxic and can be consider to be classified in aquatic chronic category 3, but as the chemical was readily biodegradable in water, thus can be consider to be nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Above study was further supported by the third study from peer reviewed journal. The objective of this study was to develop procedures that relate modes of acute toxic action of test chemical on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Short term toxicity study to Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) was carried out for 96 hrs. Test was conducted using Lake Superior water at 25±1°C. Aqueous toxicant concentrations were measured in tests with quality assurance criteria requiring 80% agreement between duplicate samples and 90 to 110% spike recovery. Flow-through exposures were conducted using cycling proportional, modified Benoit, or electronic diluters. The test was performed under the flow-through condition with temp of 25 ± 1°C. 28 - 30 d old juvenile test organisms were used for the study. Median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated using the Trimmed Spearman–Karber Method, with 95% confidence intervals being calculated when possible. Fish shows type III syndrome which indicates spontaneous locomotor activity, convulsion, spasms, tetany, scoliosis, lordosis, and/or hemorrhaging in the vertebral column. After the exposure of 96 hrs of chemical with the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas), the LC50 was observed to be 13.8 mg/l. Based on the LC50 value, test chemical was consider as toxic and classified in chronic 3 category. But as the chemical was readily biodegradable in water thus considering that criteria, chemical consider to be nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Another experimental study from peer reviewed journal was conducted to investigate the effect of test chemical on the mortality rate of fishes Pimephales promelas and Carassius auratus. Test conducted according to the OECD guideline 203 and test organisms were maintain in the appropriate system and follows all the criteria which meet the guideline. Chemical analyzed with a Hewlett-Packard 5840A gas chromatograph equipped with model 7671 A auto injector and also with FID. Both fishes obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Organisms does not fed 24 hrs before and during the test. Test conducted in glass aquaria tank 60×30×30 cm deep. Tank divided into six compartments and one wide compartment with stainless steel screen divider. One standpipe were also present at the top. Test performed in duplicates with control which simultaneously run with the test chemical. Effect calculated by Trimmed Spearman- Karber method were used. As the test conducted on the two species of fish different effect concentrations were obtain at which 50 % mortality were observed. Based on the mortality of Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) and Carassius auratus (Goldfish) by the exposure of test chemical for 96 hrs, the LC50 value was determine to be at 19.7 mg/l and 13.1 mg/l. Based on the LC50 value, test chemical was consider as toxic and classified in aquatic chronic 3 category, but as the test chemical was readily biodegrades in water, thus on that criteria chemical consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Similar fifth study was conducted to determine the effect of test chemical on the mortality rate of fishes Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) and Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill). Test conducted for 96 hours and according to the OECD guideline 202. Test organisms were maintain in the appropriate system and follows all the criteria which meet the guideline. Chemical analyzed with a Hewlett-Packard 5840 A gas chromatograph equipped with model 7671 A auto injector and also with FID. Both fishes obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Fishes not fed 24 hrs before and during the test. Test conducted in glass aquaria tank 60×30×30 cm deep. Tank divided into six compartments and one wide compartment with stainless steel screen divider. One standpipe were also present at the top. Test performed in duplicates with control which simultaneously run with the test chemical. Effect calculated by Trimmed Spearman- Karber method were used. Based on the mortality of Oncorhynchus mycoses (Rainbow Trout) and Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) by the exposure of test chemical for 96 hrs, the LC50 was determine to be at 7.31 mg/l and 4.31 mg/l. Based on the LC50 value, test chemical was consider as toxic and classified as chronic 2 category. Test chemical degrade faster in water and if exposed in water degrades faster and the chance of toxicity to fishes was les. Thus based on the readily biodegradability criteria of test chemical, it can be consider that the chemical was nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Based on the above studies, it can be concluded that the chemical was nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.