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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data is from peer reviewed journal
Justification for type of information:
Data is from peer reviewed journal
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The objective of the present study was to develop the method for determination of toxicity of Nicotine sulfate on the growth of aquatic invertebrate daphnia magna by satisfying the guideline.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: Nicotine sulfate
- Molecular formula: C10H14N2.1/2H2O4S
- Molecular weight: 422.547
- Smiles notation: CN1CCC[C@H]1c2cccnc2.CN3CCC[C@H]3c4 cccnc4.OS(=O)(=O)O
- InChl: 1S/2C10H14N2.H2O4S/c2*1-12-7-3-5-10(12)9-4-2-6-11-8-9;1-5(2,3)4 /h2*2,4,6,8,10H, 3,5,7H2,1H3; (H2,1,2,3,4)/t2*10-;/m00./s1
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Chemical obtain from Sigma chemical Co, St. Louis
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Details on test organisms
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0-24 hrs old
- Source: Test organisms obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth
- Feeding during test: Not fed 24 hrs before and during the test
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
44.7 (40.8 to 47.6 mg/L CaCO3)
Test temperature:
17.2° C (16.5 to 18.4 ° C)
pH:
7.39 (6.84 to 7.80)
Dissolved oxygen:
8.7 (4.8 to 10.7 mg/L)
Details on test conditions:
Details on test conditions
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Glass beaker
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: For daphnia exposure chamber was 250 ml beakers with two 1.9 cm holes located 1 cm from the bottom and on opposite sides of each beaker.
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): Flow-through
- No. of organisms per vessel: 20
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Water obtain from Lake superior. 2 L proportional diluter with a dilution factor of 0.5 was used.
- Alkalinity: 43.0 mg/L CaCO3 (40.4 to 49.5 mg/L CaCO3)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Yes
- Photoperiod: 12 hrs photoperiod was used
- Light intensity: 17 lumens at the surface of water.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Immobility, all other parameters including pH, temperature were measured


- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Immobility of daphnia magna
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
3.25 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CI was 2.72-3.88 mg/l (2720-3880) µg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Trimmed Spearman- Karber method were used

Adult daphnids were separated into 2liter battery jars. After 24 hrs, 0-24 hrs old daphnia were carefully collected using fire polished glass tubes and squeeze bulbs, counted into 250 ml exposure beakers which were randomly hung in the 10 × 30 cm compartments of the 12 exposure tanks. After 48 hrs immobility and dead organisms were measured by dissecting microscope.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on the immobility of daphnia magna by the chemical exposure Nicotine sulfate for 48 hrs, the EC50 was determine to be 3.25 mg/l with the 95 % CI of 2.72-3.88 mg/l.
Executive summary:

The objective of the present study was to develop the method for determination of toxicity of Nicotine sulfate on the growth of aquatic invertebrate daphnia magna by satisfying the guideline. According to the OECD guideline 202 daphnia magna maintain in the appropriate system and follows all the criteria which meet the guideline.Chemical analyzed with a Hewlett-Packard 5840A gas chromatograph equipped with model 7671 A auto injector and also with FID.

 

 

0-24 hrs old daphnia magna obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Organismsnot fed 24 hrs before and during the test.Test conducted in 250 ml beakers with two 1.9 cm holes located 1 cm from the bottom and on opposite sides of each beaker. 20 daphnia per concentration were exposed for 48 hrs and the immobility were observed.

 

 

Adult daphnids were separated into 2liter battery jars. After 24 hrs, 0-24 hrs old daphnia were carefully collected using fire polished glass tubes and squeeze bulbs, counted into 250 ml exposure beakers which were randomly hung in the 10 × 30 cm compartments of the 12 exposure tanks. After 48 hrs immobility and dead organisms were measured by dissecting microscope.

 

Based on the immobility of daphnia magna by the chemical exposure Nicotine sulfate for 48 hrs, the EC50 was determine to be 3.25 mg/l with the 95 % CI of 2.72-3.88 mg/l. Based on the EC50 chemical was consider as toxic and classified as chronic 2 but as Nicotine sulfate was readily biodegrade when comes in contact with water, thus on that criteria it was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Description of key information

The objective of the present study was to develop the method for determination of toxicity of Nicotine sulfate on the growth of aquatic invertebrate daphnia magna by satisfying the guideline. According to the OECD guideline 202 daphnia magna maintain in the appropriate system and follows all the criteria which meet the guideline.Chemical analyzed with a Hewlett-Packard 5840A gas chromatograph equipped with model 7671 A auto injector and also with FID. 0-24 hrs old daphnia magna obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Organismsnot fed 24 hrs before and during the test.Test conducted in 250 ml beakers with two 1.9 cm holes located 1 cm from the bottom and on opposite sides of each beaker. 20 daphnia per concentration were exposed for 48 hrs and the immobility were observed. Adult daphnids were separated into 2liter battery jars. After 24 hrs, 0-24 hrs old daphnia were carefully collected using fire polished glass tubes and squeeze bulbs, counted into 250 ml exposure beakers which were randomly hung in the 10 × 30 cm compartments of the 12 exposure tanks. After 48 hrs immobility and dead organisms were measured by dissecting microscope. Based on the immobility of daphnia magna by the chemical exposure Nicotine sulfate for 48 hrs, the EC50 was determine to be 3.25 mg/l with the 95 % CI of 2.72-3.88 mg/l. Based on the EC50 chemical was consider as toxic and classified as chronic 2 but as Nicotine sulfate was readily biodegrade when comes in contact with water, thus on that criteria it was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
3.25 mg/L

Additional information

In the first key study from the peer reviewed journal 1987 toxicity on invertebrates were studied. The objective of the present study was to develop the method for determination of toxicity of Nicotine sulfate on the growth of aquatic invertebrate daphnia magna by satisfying the guideline. According to the OECD guideline 202 daphnia magna maintain in the appropriate system and follows all the criteria which meet the guideline. Chemical analyzed with a Hewlett-Packard 5840A gas chromatograph equipped with model 7671 A auto injector and also with FID. 0-24 hrs old daphnia magna obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Organisms not fed 24 hrs before and during the test. Test conducted in 250 ml beakers with two 1.9 cm holes located 1 cm from the bottom and on opposite sides of each beaker. 20 daphnia per concentration were exposed for 48 hrs and the immobility were observed. Adult daphnids were separated into 2liter battery jars. After 24 hrs, 0-24 hrs old daphnia were carefully collected using fire polished glass tubes and squeeze bulbs, counted into 250 ml exposure beakers which were randomly hung in the 10 × 30 cm compartments of the 12 exposure tanks. After 48 hrs immobility and dead organisms were measured by dissecting microscope. Based on the immobility of daphnia magna by the chemical exposure Nicotine sulfate for 48 hrs, the EC50 was determine to be 3.25 mg/l with the 95 % CI of 2.72-3.88 mg/l. Based on the EC50 chemical was consider as toxic and classified as chronic 2 but as Nicotine sulfate was readily biodegrade when comes in contact with water, thus on that criteria it was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

First study was supported by the second study from the peer reviewed journal 1987. The objective of the present study was to develop the method for determine the toxicity of Nicotine sulfate on the mortality of Aplexa hypnorum (Snail). According to the OECD guideline 202 Aplexa hypnorum (Snail) maintain in the appropriate system and follows all the criteria which meet the guideline. Chemical analyzed with a Hewlett-Packard 5840A gas chromatograph equipped with model 7671 A auto injector and also with FID. Adult Aplexa hypnorum (Snail) obtain from the stock-culture units of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Organisms not fed 24 hrs before and during the test. Test conducted in glass aquaria tank 60×30×30 cm deep. Tank divided into six compartments and one wide compartment with stainless steel screen divider. One standpipe were also present at the top. After 96 hrs dead organisms were measured by dissecting microscope. Based on the mortality of Aplexa hypnorum snail by the chemical exposure Nicotine sulfate for 96 hrs, the EC50 was determine to be > 38.2 mg/l. Based on the EC50 chemical was consider as toxic and classified as chronic 3 but as Nicotine sulfate was readily biodegrade when comes in contact with water, thus on that criteria it was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Based on the above studies it can be concluded that the chemical was nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.