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Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data is from peer reviewed journal
Justification for type of information:
Data is from peer reviewed journal
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Short term toxicity study on aquatic algae was conducted for 96 hrs for test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid. Test performed in accordance with OECD guideline 201.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (IUPAC Name): 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid
- Common name: Nicotine sulphate
- Molecular formula: C20H30N4O4S
- Molecular weight: 422.54 g/mol
- Smiles notation: CN1CCCC1C2=CN=CC=C2.CN1CCCC1C2=CN=CC=C2.OS(=O)(=O)O
- InChI: 1S/2C10H14N2.H2O4S/c2*1-12-7-3-5-10(12)9-4-2-6-11-8-9;1-5(2,3)4/h2*2,4,6,8,10H,3,5,7H2,1H3;(H2,1,2,3,4)/t2*10-;/m00./s1
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
- Analytical purity: Chemical purity was determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a variable-wavelength detector.
- Other: (S)-(-)-nicotine hemisulfate (S-NHS) was obtained from DeNovo. All studies were performed at the Environmental Fate and Effects Laboratory of Roy F. Weston (West Chester, PA, USA). The S-NHS was stored at 4 ± 2°C in a septum-sealed, amber bottle with pressurized nitrogen in the headspace. Before initiation of the studies, the stability of the test substance under storage conditions for a representative dosing solution was determined by analysis of chemical and optical purity. Optical purity was determined using a chiral HPLC method with a variable-wavelength detector. Purity was evaluated periodically during the course of testing. Chemical and optical purities of the unlabeled S-NHS were 99% or greater throughout all the studies.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
- Method: 10,000 mg/l test compound dissolved in sterile ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Type II water
Test organisms (species):
other: Selenastrum capricornutum
Details on test organisms:
Details on test organisms
TEST ORGANISM
- Source (laboratory, culture collection): American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD, USA)
- Method of cultivation: Culture was maintained in algal medium at 24 ± 2 °C with illumination of between 4,500 and 4,710 lux.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs.
Test temperature:
24 ± 2 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/l
Details on test conditions:
Details on test conditions
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Erlenmeyer flasks
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 125-ml Erlenmeyer flasks, producing a final volume of 50 ml.
- Initial cells density: 1000 – 10000 cells/ml
- Control end cells density:
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1-ml aliquot of a concentrated cell suspension (7.2 × 104 cells/ml)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Light intensity and quality: white fluorescent lighting (3,870–4,730 lux)

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Determination of cell concentrations: Algal growth was measured spectrophotometrically (at 350 nm) at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h using filtered medium as a blank.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: Correct appearance of the algal cells was verified by microscopic examination before testing. A range-finding test (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/L) was conducted to determine the median effective concentration (EC50) and the median effective concentrations for inhibition of algal growth (ErC50) and biomass accumulation (EbC50). Essentially 100% inhibition of algal growth was observed at the two highest concentrations, but no changes in cell appearance were detected at any concentration tested. Accordingly, the definitive test was conducted at 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/l.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
115 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
72.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Inhibition of algal growth rate and biomass
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The average specific growth rate was calculated by dividing the natural log of the change in cells/ml between selected assays by the elapsed time (in h) between the assays. The percentage inhibition in average cell growth rate was calculated as the difference between the control and each chemical test concentration.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
After the exposure of test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid with freshwater algae Selenastrum capricornutum, effects on biomass and growth rate were observed. Based on the biomass inhibition EC50 was determine to be 115 mg/l and on the basis of growth rate inhibition the EC50 was determine to be 72.9 mg/l. The NOEC was observed at 10 mg/l. As the chemical was readily biodegradable, thus consider as nontoxic and not classified.
Executive summary:

Short term toxicity study on aquatic algae was conducted for 96 hrs for test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid. Test performed in accordance with OECD guideline 201. Chemical was analytically monitored by HPLC and spectrophotometer. 10,000 mg/l test compound dissolved in sterile ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Type II water and prepared stock solutions with different concentrations 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/l. 125-ml Erlenmeyer flasks were used, producing a final volume of 50 ml with 1-ml aliquot of a concentrated cell suspension (7.2 × 104cells/ml). Algal growth was measured spectrophotometrically (at 350 nm) at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h using filtered medium as a blank. Correct appearance of the algal cells was verified by microscopic examination before testing. A range-finding test (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/L) was conducted to determine the median effective concentration (EC50) and the median effective concentrations for inhibition of algal growth (ErC50) and biomass accumulation (EbC50). Thus based on the range finding study definitive concentration were selected. Culture was maintained in algal medium at 24 ± 2 °C with illumination of between 4,500 and 4,710 lux. The average specific growth rate was calculated by dividing the natural log of the change in cells/ml between selected assays by the elapsed time (in h) between the assays. The percentage inhibition in average cell growth rate was calculated as the difference between the control and each chemical test concentration. After the exposure of test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid with freshwater algae Selenastrum capricornutum, effects on biomass and growth rate were observed. Based on the biomass inhibition EC50 was determine to be 115 mg/l and on the basis of growth rate inhibition the EC50 was determine to be 72.9 mg/l. The NOEC was observed at 10 mg/l. As the chemical was readily biodegradable, thus consider as nontoxic and not classified.

Description of key information

After the exposure of test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid with freshwater algae Selenastrum capricornutum, effects on biomass and growth rate were observed. Based on the biomass inhibition EC50 was determine to be 115 mg/l and on the basis of growth rate inhibition the EC50 was determine to be 72.9 mg/l. The NOEC was observed at 10 mg/l. As the chemical was readily biodegradable, thus consider as nontoxic and not classified.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater algae:
115 mg/L

Additional information

In the key study from the peer reviewed journal 2009, Short term toxicity study on aquatic algae was conducted for 96 hrs for test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl] pyridine; sulfuric acid. Test performed in accordance with OECD guideline 201. Chemical was analytically monitored by HPLC and spectrophotometer. 10,000 mg/l test compound dissolved in sterile ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Type II water and prepared stock solutions with different concentrations 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/l. 125-ml Erlenmeyer flasks were used, producing a final volume of 50 ml with 1-ml aliquot of a concentrated cell suspension (7.2 × 104cells/ml). Algal growth was measured spectrophotometrically (at 350 nm) at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h using filtered medium as a blank. Correct appearance of the algal cells was verified by microscopic examination before testing. A range-finding test (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/L) was conducted to determine the median effective concentration (EC50) and the median effective concentrations for inhibition of algal growth (ErC50) and biomass accumulation (EbC50). Thus based on the range finding study definitive concentration were selected. Culture was maintained in algal medium at 24 ± 2 °C with illumination of between 4,500 and 4,710 lux. The average specific growth rate was calculated by dividing the natural log of the change in cells/ml between selected assays by the elapsed time (in h) between the assays. The percentage inhibition in average cell growth rate was calculated as the difference between the control and each chemical test concentration. After the exposure of test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid with freshwater algae Selenastrum capricornutum, effects on biomass and growth rate were observed. Based on the biomass inhibition EC50 was determine to be 115 mg/l and on the basis of growth rate inhibition the EC50 was determine to be 72.9 mg/l. The NOEC was observed at 10 mg/l. As the chemical was readily biodegradable, thus consider as nontoxic and not classified.