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Environmental fate & pathways

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Biodegradation in water

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid (CAS no. 65-30-5) (JOEL A. SECKAR et. al., 2008). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 B (Ready Biodegradability: CO2 Evolution Test) under aerobic conditions. Two activated sludge test systems were included. The first system was collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Downingtown (PA, USA) that received primarily domestic sewage and was considered to be unacclimated to nicotine. The second system was collected from a wastewater treatment plant located in Winston-Salem (NC, USA) that received wastewater from a cigarette manufacturing facility and was considered to be acclimated to nicotine.In this test, mineral media containing S-NHS (10 mg C/L) as the nominal sole source of organic carbon were aerated in CO2-free air for 28 d. Biodegradation of S-NHS over the test period was indicated by production of CO2. The evolved CO2 was captured using a serial barium hydroxide trapping system in which the CO2 reacted with Ba(OH)2 to form an insoluble BaCO3 precipitate. The amount of CO2 produced was calculated indirectly by titration of the remaining hydroxide with 0.05 N standardized HCl.A procedural control in which sodium benzoate (10 mg C/L) was used as the sole source of organic carbon was included to confirm the activity of the inocula, and a toxicity control containing both S-NHS (10 mg C/L) and sodium benzoate (10 mg C/L) was included to ensure the test substance was not adversely affecting the inocula. Nonspecific production of CO2 was indicated by an abiotic sterile control that contained S-NHS (10 mg C/L) and 0.01% HgCl2 but no inocula. In the activated sludge test system considered to be unacclimated to nicotine, the final TCO2 results for the two flasks dosed with S-NHS averaged 84.5%, and the 60% pass value was achieved within a 10-d window despite a 3-d lag in CO2 evolution. The TCO2 result for the toxicity control was 81% at day 14, with a final value of 87.3%, indicating the test substance was noninhibitory at the concentration tested (24.0 mg/L). For the activated sludge test system acclimated to nicotine, the final TCO2 results for the two flasks dosed with S-NHS averaged 82.1%, and the 60% pass value was achieved within a 10-d window following a lag of approximately 1 d in CO2 evolution. The TCO2 result for the toxicity control for the acclimated test system was 58.9% at day 14, with a final value of 70.1%, indicating that 24.0 mg S-NHS/L also was non-inhibitory in this test system. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 3 -[(2S)-1 -methylpyrrolidin-2 -yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid is considered to be readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in soil

Biodegradation study in soil was conducted for 28 days for determining the half-life value of the chemical 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid (CAS no. 65-35-0) (JOEL A. SECKAR et. al., 2008). The study was performed using theModified OECD Guideline 304 A (Inherent Biodegradability in Soil) in sludge-composited agricultural soil and in collected soil. Radiolabeling of test chemical was done at the carbon position.The test substance, radiolabeled (S)-(-)-[pyridine-2-14C]nicotine hemisulfate (S-14CNHS), was synthesized by ChemSyn Science Laboratories (Lenexa, KS, USA) as a primary ethanol solution (630µCi/ml) and was stored at-20±5°C under an inert atmosphere protected from light. Thestability of the test substance under these storage conditions and of a representative dosing solution was determined by analysis of the chemical and radiochemical purity using reverse-phase HPLC with variable-wavelength and radiochemical detectors, and radio-optical purity was determined using a chiral HPLC method with variable-wavelength and radiochemical detectors.Chemical purity was determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a variable-wavelength detector.Purity was evaluated periodically during the course of testing. Radiochemical and radio-optical purities of the labeled S-14CNHS were 99% or greater throughout all the studies.Soil A was collected from an agricultural field in Spring City (PA, USA) and was considered to be unacclimated to nicotine. Soil B was collected from a site located in the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Whitaker Park Manufacturing Complex in Winston-Salem and was considered to be acclimated to nicotine. Test chemical concentration used for the study was0.5 mg/kg.The soil A test consisted of eight glass, 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks, each containing 100 g dry weight equivalent of a soil test system. The test (89µl) and reference ([14C]stearic acid, 120µl) substances were each dosed in triplicate flasks for each soil at a concentration of 0.5 mg/kg, and the water content was adjusted to approximately 35% using deionized water. The soil B test consisted of eight glass, 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks, each containing 100 g dry weight equivalent of a soil test system. The test (89µl) and reference ([14C]stearic acid, 120µl) substances were each dosed in triplicate flasks for each soil (A and B) at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg, and the water content was adjusted to approximately 35% using deionized water.In addition, three blanks were included for each soil used during the present study. The flasks were aerated continuously during the course of the study with a CO2-free air source.The 14CO2 released from the flasks was trapped in 1.5 N KOH. Samples were periodically collected and assayed for 14C activity by liquid scintillation counting.After 28 d, the contents of the flasks were acidified with 1 N HCl and allowed to incubate for 3 d. A final set of samples was collected and analyzed on day 31, and a mass-balance determination was performed on a single flask from each treatment.The percentage degradation of test chemical3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acidin soil A and B was determined to be 75.05 ± 5.1% and 76.54 ± 0.51% in 28 days, respectively. Thus, based on percentage degradation, it is concluded that the chemical 3 -[(2S)-1 -methylpyrrolidin-2 -yl]pyridine; sulfuric acidis not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid (CAS no. 65-30-5) (JOEL A. SECKAR et. al., 2008). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 B (Ready Biodegradability: CO2 Evolution Test) under aerobic conditions. Two activated sludge test systems were included. The first system was collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Downingtown (PA, USA) that received primarily domestic sewage and was considered to be unacclimated to nicotine. The second system was collected from a wastewater treatment plant located in Winston-Salem (NC, USA) that received wastewater from a cigarette manufacturing facility and was considered to be acclimated to nicotine.In this test, mineral media containing S-NHS (10 mg C/L) as the nominal sole source of organic carbon were aerated in CO2-free air for 28 d. Biodegradation of S-NHS over the test period was indicated by production of CO2. The evolved CO2 was captured using a serial barium hydroxide trapping system in which the CO2 reacted with Ba(OH)2 to form an insoluble BaCO3 precipitate. The amount of CO2 produced was calculated indirectly by titration of the remaining hydroxide with 0.05 N standardized HCl.A procedural control in which sodium benzoate (10 mg C/L) was used as the sole source of organic carbon was included to confirm the activity of the inocula, and a toxicity control containing both S-NHS (10 mg C/L) and sodium benzoate (10 mg C/L) was included to ensure the test substance was not adversely affecting the inocula. Nonspecific production of CO2 was indicated by an abiotic sterile control that contained S-NHS (10 mg C/L) and 0.01% HgCl2 but no inocula. In the activated sludge test system considered to be unacclimated to nicotine, the final TCO2 results for the two flasks dosed with S-NHS averaged 84.5%, and the 60% pass value was achieved within a 10-d window despite a 3-d lag in CO2 evolution. The TCO2 result for the toxicity control was 81% at day 14, with a final value of 87.3%, indicating the test substance was noninhibitory at the concentration tested (24.0 mg/L). For the activated sludge test system acclimated to nicotine, the final TCO2 results for the two flasks dosed with S-NHS averaged 82.1%, and the 60% pass value was achieved within a 10-d window following a lag of approximately 1 d in CO2 evolution. The TCO2 result for the toxicity control for the acclimated test system was 58.9% at day 14, with a final value of 70.1%, indicating that 24.0 mg S-NHS/L also was non-inhibitory in this test system. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 3 -[(2S)-1 -methylpyrrolidin-2 -yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid is considered to be readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in soil

Biodegradation study in soil was conducted for 28 days for determining the half-life value of the chemical 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid (CAS no. 65-35-0) (JOEL A. SECKAR et. al., 2008). The study was performed using theModified OECD Guideline 304 A (Inherent Biodegradability in Soil) in sludge-composited agricultural soil and in collected soil. Radiolabeling of test chemical was done at the carbon position.The test substance, radiolabeled (S)-(-)-[pyridine-2-14C]nicotine hemisulfate (S-14CNHS), was synthesized by ChemSyn Science Laboratories (Lenexa, KS, USA) as a primary ethanol solution (630µCi/ml) and was stored at-20±5°C under an inert atmosphere protected from light. Thestability of the test substance under these storage conditions and of a representative dosing solution was determined by analysis of the chemical and radiochemical purity using reverse-phase HPLC with variable-wavelength and radiochemical detectors, and radio-optical purity was determined using a chiral HPLC method with variable-wavelength and radiochemical detectors.Chemical purity was determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a variable-wavelength detector.Purity was evaluated periodically during the course of testing. Radiochemical and radio-optical purities of the labeled S-14CNHS were 99% or greater throughout all the studies.Soil A was collected from an agricultural field in Spring City (PA, USA) and was considered to be unacclimated to nicotine. Soil B was collected from a site located in the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Whitaker Park Manufacturing Complex in Winston-Salem and was considered to be acclimated to nicotine. Test chemical concentration used for the study was0.5 mg/kg.The soil A test consisted of eight glass, 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks, each containing 100 g dry weight equivalent of a soil test system. The test (89µl) and reference ([14C]stearic acid, 120µl) substances were each dosed in triplicate flasks for each soil at a concentration of 0.5 mg/kg, and the water content was adjusted to approximately 35% using deionized water. The soil B test consisted of eight glass, 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks, each containing 100 g dry weight equivalent of a soil test system. The test (89µl) and reference ([14C]stearic acid, 120µl) substances were each dosed in triplicate flasks for each soil (A and B) at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg, and the water content was adjusted to approximately 35% using deionized water.In addition, three blanks were included for each soil used during the present study. The flasks were aerated continuously during the course of the study with a CO2-free air source.The 14CO2 released from the flasks was trapped in 1.5 N KOH. Samples were periodically collected and assayed for 14C activity by liquid scintillation counting.After 28 d, the contents of the flasks were acidified with 1 N HCl and allowed to incubate for 3 d. A final set of samples was collected and analyzed on day 31, and a mass-balance determination was performed on a single flask from each treatment.The percentage degradation of test chemical3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acidin soil A and B was determined to be 75.05 ± 5.1% and 76.54 ± 0.51% in 28 days, respectively. Thus, based on percentage degradation, it is concluded that the chemical 3 -[(2S)-1 -methylpyrrolidin-2 -yl]pyridine; sulfuric acidis not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine; sulfuric acid can be considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.