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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: inhalation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
1950 occupational exposure study of 15 individuals with long-term workplace exposure to tartaric acid dust. Does not allow interpretation following any inhalatory toxicity test guideline, but offers insight into effects and relevance of long-term exposure top tartaric acid dust.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Erosion of Teeth due to Tartaric Acid Dust
Author:
Elsbury, W.B., Browne, R.C., and Boyes, J.
Year:
1950
Bibliographic source:
Brit. J. Industr. Med., 1954, 8, 179.

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Guideline:
other: Occupational case study
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
other: Occupational case study
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
The material to which the subjects were occupationally exposed is referred to in the study as "tartaric acid dust" in a tin making factory. This dust was quantitated gravimetrically and extimated to be at an airbourne concentration of 15 mg/m3. Percentual coposition of this powder was reported to be: 7.7% free tartaric acid; 22.5% combined tartaric acid; 16.5% sodium bicarbonate; 37.2% magnesium sulphate; 14.3% sucrose and 9.5% insoluble residue. Thereby the approximate amount of free and combined (tartrates) tartaric acid is estimated to account for 30.2% of the dust. Thereby the typical dust concentration of free and combined tartrates to which the workers were exposed results in approximately: 4.5 mg/m3

Test animals

Species:
other: Occupational case study - humans
Strain:
other: Occupational case study - humans
Sex:
female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
As a result of their occopation in a tin making company the effect of exposure to a reportedly "very dusty atmosphere" containing approximately 4.5 mg/m3 of free and combined tartaric acid was studied. The study describes exposures of 15 young individuals (females) for periods between 6 and 22 months, with weekly exposure times of 29 - 30 h to dust in mixing rooms were the substance was handled.

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation: dust
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Remarks:
Occupational report
Details on inhalation exposure:
The occupational report describes effects of occupational exposure of 15 "girls" employed in a tin-making factory. Exposure takes place to dust in operations involving scooping powders out of drums, weighing, emptying them down chutes into hoppers and mixing . This generates a disty atmosphere to which the subjects are exposed unprotected for 29 - 30 h/ week for periods of 6 months to 22 months as reported in the study. Report indicates that although masks are supplied, these are not worn.
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
yes
Remarks:
Composition of powder partially reported but analytical technique described
Duration of exposure:
> 180 d
Concentrations:
Approx 4.5 mg/m3 free and combined tartrates
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15 young female employees exposed to approximately 4.5 mg/m3 free tartaric acid and tartrates.
Control animals:
other: 16 comparable individuals of same age and financial status working in another section of the tin making plant with no dust exposure
Statistics:
Occupational exposure

Results and discussion

Effect levelsopen allclose all
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect level:
> 4.5 mg/m³ air
Based on:
other: free and combined tartaric acid
Exp. duration:
180 d
Remarks on result:
other: Occupational case study
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
other: LOEC
Effect level:
4.5 mg/m³ air
Exp. duration:
180 d
Mortality:
No motality
Clinical signs:
The report focuses on effects of the tartaric acid (and combined tartrates) which are inhaled and presumably retained in the mouth and upper respiratory tract. This leads to severely acidic saliva which on long term exposure leads to teeth erosion with progressive disappearance of the enamel and exposure of the dentine, leading to the eventual loss of the pieces. No other clinical signs of intoxication, respiratory distress or other lesions are reported.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
relatively harmless
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: expert judgment
Conclusions:
Long term worker exposure to free tartaric acid and combined tartaric acid dust in conditions of high dustiness (ca. 4.5 mg/m3) for periods of 30 h/week for more than 6 months result in teeth erosion and progressive loss of dental pieces, but other clinical signs, morbidity or lethality are reported in a case study involving 15 youn females exposed in a tin-making company. Thereby the long term LD50 can be assumed to be well above 4.5 mg/m3.
Executive summary:

The report focuses on effects of the tartaric acid (and combined tartrates) which are inhaled and presumably retained in the mouth and upper respiratory tract. This leads to severely acidic saliva which on long term exposure leads to teeth erosion with progressive disappearance of the enamel and exposure of the dentine, leading to the eventual loss of the pieces.

Long term worker exposure to free tartaric acid and combined tartaric acid dust in conditions of high dustiness (ca. 4.5 mg/m3) for periods of 30 h/week for more than 6 months result in teeth erosion and progressive loss of dental pieces, but other clinical signs, morbidity or lethality are reported in a case study involving 15 youg females exposed in a tin-making company. Thereby the long term LD50 can be assumed to be well above 4.5 mg/m3.

This case study is considered relevant towards supporting the low inhalatory toxicity of tartaroc acid and furthermore of combined tartaric acid, such as in the form of potassium sodium tartrate.