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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
2001
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Peer reviewed and accepted as Klimisch 1 in OECD SIDS review for disodium succinate. Considered key study.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Disodium succinate (anhydrous) has the following physical properties: boil.p and melt.p.: > 400 °C; solubility in water:> 100 g/L; vapour preseere: < 0,00015 at 100 °C; log Kow: < 0.59 (estimated); pKas: (1) 4,21; (2) 5,64 (for succinic acid).
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Dilution Water Chemistry: pH: = 7.4
Total hardness (as CaCO3): = 61.0 mg/L
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Test Organisms:
a) Age: < 24 hours old
b) Supplier/Source: Test organisms were obtained from the University of Sheffield (UK) and had been reproduced in the testing laboratory for 10
years.
c) Any pretreatment: Parental daphnids were acclimated for 29 days on test condition before testing. During acclimation, test daphnids were fed
with Chlorella vulgaris, 0.1 - 0.2 mg carbon/day/individual. The mortality of the daphnids was less than 5% for 2 weeks before testing.
Any resting-egg and male daphnia was not observed.
EC50(48hr, immobility) for reference substance (potassium dichromate) was 0.171mg/L.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
Total hardness (as CaCO3): = 61.0 mg/L
Test temperature:
Water Temperature: 20+/-1ºC
Water Temperature: 20.5 - 20.6ºC during the test (monitored)
pH:
pH: 7.7 - 7.9 during the test
Dissolved oxygen:
DO: 7.0 - 8.8 mg/L during the test (monitored)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: control, 592, 769 and 1,000 mg/L (as anhydrous disodium succinate)
Measured concentrations: control (< 15 mg/L), 579, 757 and 997 mg/L (as anhydrous disodium succinate).
Details on test conditions:
Test Conditions:
a) Dilution Water Source: Dilution water was prepared from tap water (Kurume city, Japan). The tap water was dechlorinated and treated by
activated carbon. After that Residual Chlorine was removed from the water.

b) Dilution Water Chemistry:
pH: = 7.4
Total hardness (as CaCO3): = 61.0 mg/L

c) Exposure Vessel Type: 100 mL test solution in a 100 mL glass beaker

d) Nominal Concentrations: control, 592, 769 and 1,000 mg/L

e) Vehicle/Solvent and Concentrations: No solvent was used.

f) Stock Solutions Preparations and Stability: Test chemical was refrigerated. The stability of the chemical was confirmed by IR spectrum.
The IR spectrum at the end of the test was same at the start of test.

g) Number of Replicates: 4

h) Individuals per Replicates: 5

i) Water Temperature: 20+/-1ºC

j) Light Condition: 16:8 hours, light-darkness cycle

k) Feeding: None

l) Aeration : not described
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
EC50(48hr, immobility) for reference substance (potassium dichromate) was 0.171mg/L.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 997 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
as anhydrous disodium succinate
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
> 997 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
as anhydrous disodium succinate
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
The test concentrations were measured at the start and the end of the test. For all of them, the deviations from the nominal were less than +/-20%.
No mortality or immobility were seen at 24 or at 48 hours of exposure.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
EC50(48hr, immobility) for reference substance (potassium dichromate) was 0.171mg/L.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical Method:
a) Data Analysis: During test period the immobility of test organisms was not observed in any concentration, therefore the EC 50 is more than the
highest concentration.
b) Method of Calculating Mean Measured Concentrations: time-weighted
mean
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
Ref substance mortality within acceptable range. Mortality of tests orgnisms in control below 10%.
Conclusions:
The test material disodium succinate has a very low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 > 997 mg/L and an acute NOEC of > 997 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of disodium succinate hexahydrate (CAS 6106-21-4) on juvenile Daphnia magna was tested by means of OECD TG 202 (acute immobilization test). Three concentrations (579, 757 and 997, measured) and a control tested, with four replicated per concentration with 5 organisms per replicate. Test temperature was maintained at 20±1 °C, with a photoperios of 18:8 h light/darkness, at a pH of 7.4 and with water of hardness (as CaCO3) of 61.0 mg/L.

No motrality or immobility were appreciated at 24 or 48 h exposure. No motality was seen in the control and the sensitivity of the organisms towards reference substance (potassium dichromate) was suitable: 0.171mg/L. Thereby it can be concluded that disodium succinate has a very low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 > 997 mg/L and an acute NOEC of > 997 mg/L.

Given that potassium sodium tartrate is a structurally very similar C4 dicarboxyllic acid salt this result is considered as relevant towards read-across.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
2001
Justification for type of information:
Given that potassium sodium tartrate is a structurally very similar C4 dicarboxyllic acid salt to malic acid salts this result is considered as
relevant towards read-across, although it is likely that test results performed with a sodium or potassium salt of malic acid, instead than
with malic acid, are likely to be lower to do a lower acidity of the resulting test solutions.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 240 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
(as anhydrous malic acid)
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
The dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged between 8.1 and 8.6 mg/L. The values represented 93% and 99% saturation at 20°C, respectively, and were consid ered adequate for testing. The pH values of the test chambers ranged from 3.2 to 8.2. Mortality and/or surfacing was observed in test concentrations ≥180 mg/L during the 48-hour exposure period. The high mortality rates observed in the 320, 560, and 1,000 mg/L test concentrations can be attributed to the acidic solutions of these higher concentrations. Low pH (3.2-4.5) caused by the acidic test material may be considered the primary cause of the observed toxicity.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
(Full study reported as Klimish 1 in peer reviewed OECD monograph.)
Conclusions:
The test material malic acid has a low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 240 mg/L. An acute NOECof 100 mg/L is reported (where no mortality or surfacing is apprecited after 48 h exposure)..
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of Malic acid (CAS 6915 -15 -7) on juvenile Daphnia magna was tested by means of a method similar to OECD TG 202

(acute immobilization test). Five concentrations (100, 180, 320, 560 and 1000 mg/L nominal) and a control were tested, with 15 daphnids

(>24 h) per concentration. Test temperature was maintained at 20°C. Motality or immobility were apprec iated at 48 h exposure at

concentrations equal and above 180 mg/L. Appreciated mortality is probably caused by the highly acidic nature of test solutions above

320 mg/L (pH 3.2 - 4.5).

Results obtained allow to conclude that malic acid has a low low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 48 h of 240 mg/L and

an acute NOEC estimated at 100 mg/L.

Given that potassium sodium tartrate is a structurally very similar C4 dicarboxyllic acid salt to malic acid salts this result is considered as

relevant towards read-across, although it is likely that test results performed with a sodium or potassium salt of malic acid, instead than

with malic acid, are likely to be lower to do a lower acidity of the resulting test solutions.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
other: study report: Ministry of the Environment, Japan publication:Acute toxicity of P2595.01 [Malic Acid] to Daphnia magna
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
2001
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(Only 15 daphnids / concentration were used. No analytical monitoring
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Malic acid. No further details available
Malic acid (anhydrous) has the following physical properties: Mol.weight: 134.1; boil.p: 131 °C; melt. p.:140 °C; solubility in water:592 g/L; vapour pres sure: 0,0000039 at 25 °C; log Kow: - 1.26; pKas: (1 )
3.40; (2) 5,05.
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
Water Temperature: reported constant 20 °C
pH:
pH: 3.2 to 8.2 during the test in the test vessels. High acidity due to acidic nature of sample at higher concentrations.
Dissolved oxygen:
D.O: 8.1 and 8.6 mg/L during the test (monitored)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations:control, 100, 180, 320, 560 and 1,000 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
Fifteen daphnids (≤24-hours old, first instar) were exposed to concentrations of 100, 180, 320, 560 and 1,000 mg/L, along with a control group.
All concentrations were observed every 24 hours for mortality and abnormal effects such as surfacing, clumping of daphnids and daphnids lying on the bottom of the test chamber. Dissolved oxygen, pH and
temperature were measured in one replicate test vessel of all concentrations at 0 and 48 hours. At 24 hours, the parameters were measured in the 320, 560 and 1,000 mg/L concentrations. Test temperature
remained constant at 20 °C throughout the study.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 240 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
(as anhydrous malic acid)
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
The dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged between 8.1 and 8.6 mg/L. The values represented 93% and 99% saturation at 20°C, respectively, and were consid ered adequate for testing. The pH values of
the test chambers ranged from 3.2 to 8.2.
Mortality and/or surfacing was observed in test concentrations ≥180 mg/L during the 48-hour exposure period. The high mortality rates observed in the 320, 560, and 1,000 mg/L test concentrations can be
attributed to the acidic solutions of these higher concentrations. Low pH (3.2-4.5) caused by the acidic test material may be considered the primary cause of the observed toxicity.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
(Full study reported as Klimish 1 in peer reviewed OECD monograph.)
Conclusions:
The test material malic acid has a low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 240 mg/L. An acute NOECof 100 mg/L is reported (where no mortality or surfacing is apprecited after 48 h exposure)..
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of Malic acid (CAS 6915 -15 -7) on juvenile Daphnia magna was tested by means of a method similar to OECD TG 202

(acute immobilization test). Five concentrations (100, 180, 320, 560 and 1000 mg/L nominal) and a control were tested, with 15 daphnids

(>24 h) per concentration. Test temperature was maintained at 20°C. Motality or immobility were apprec iated at 48 h exposure at

concentrations equal and above 180 mg/L. Appreciated mortality is probably caused by the highly acidic nature of test solutions above

320 mg/L (pH 3.2 - 4.5).

Results obtained allow to conclude that malic acid has a low low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 48 h of 240 mg/L and

an acute NOEC estimated at 100 mg/L.

Given that potassium sodium tartrate is a structurally very similar C4 dicarboxyllic acid salt to malic acid salts this result is considered as

relevant towards read-across, although it is likely that test results performed with a sodium or potassium salt of malic acid, instead than

with malic acid, are likely to be lower to do a lower acidity of the resulting test solutions.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Justification for type of information:
The model uses primarily fragment descriptors, specific to a group of structurally related chemicals from the training set, therefore estimations of the number of used descriptors may be difficult. In general, we estimate that the model uses an order of magnitude less descriptors than there are observations. It should be noted that due to MultiCASE's complex decision making scheme, overfitting is rare, compared to simpler linear models.
Guideline:
other: REACH Guidence on QSARs R.6, May/July 2008
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Fragment-based statistical system used in the QSAR model. MultiCASE prediction modified by logP
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Data reported for the anhydrous salt.
SMILES: [Na]OC(=O)C(O)C(O)C(=O)OK
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 894 mg/L
Details on results:
Validity of model: 1. Defined endpoint: acute toxicity to aquatic invertebrates (mobility).
2. Unambigous algorithm: Fragment based statistical system. Descriptors: (1) Fragment descriptors, [2]Distance descriptors, [3]Physicochemical descriptors, [4]Electronic descriptors, [5]Quantum mechanics
descriptors. Result: LC50=894 mg/L.
3. Applicability domain: Applicability domain of MultiCASE models is expressed in terms of absence of fragments unknown to the system and stat stical significance of the known biophores and biophobes.
Descriptors may also be taken into account. Failure to comply with the model domain is not absolute but may be graded, depending on the number and nature of the involved fragments.
4. Statistical characteristics: N=641, Coefficient determination (q2) = 0.69
5. The potassium sodium tartrate falls within the applicability domain described above and, therefore, the predicted value can be considered reliable taking into account that the standard deviation error of
prediction is 0.53. The predicted value is not below or close to the classification limit of toxicity to aquatic environment.

Trainig set=641, Validation of model: LGO(10%) gave: q2=0.69, Concordance=98 -100%, Applicability domain=0.53

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The Lc50 48 hestimated value (894 mg/L) for Daphnia Magna using the MultiCASE model included in the DK EPA database shows the low accute toxicity of the potassium sodium tartrate to aquatic invertebrates. This estimation is considered appropriate in a weight of evidence approach.
Executive summary:

The model uses primarily fragment descriptors, specific to a group of structurally related chemicals from the training set, therefore estimations of the number of used descriptors may be difficult. In general, we estimate that the model uses an order of magnitude less descriptors than there are observations. It should be noted that due to MultiCASE's complex decision making scheme, overfitting is rare, compared to simpler linear models. The predicted valie for LC50 (894 mg/L) indicates a low short-term toxicity for aquatic invertebrates.

Description of key information

Disodium succinate has a very low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 > 997 mg/L and an acute NOEC of > 997 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
240 mg/L

Additional information

The acute toxicity of disodium succinate hexahydrate (CAS 6106-21-4) on juvenile Daphnia magna was tested by means of OECD TG 202 (acute immobilization test). Three concentrations (579, 757 and 997, measured) and a control tested, with four replicated per concentration with 5 organisms per replicate. Test temperature was maintained at 20±1 °C, with a photoperios of 18:8 h light/darkness, at a pH of 7.4 and with water of hardness (as CaCO3) of 61.0 mg/L.

No mortrality or immobility were appreciated at 24 or 48 h exposure. No motality was seen in the control and the sensitivity of the organisms towards reference substance (potassium dichromate) was suitable: 0.171mg/L. Thereby it can be concluded that disodium succinate has a very low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 > 997 mg/L and an acute NOEC of 997 mg/L.

In another study the acute toxicity of Malic acid (CAS 6915 -15 -7) on juvenile Daphnia magna was tested by means of a method similar to OECD TG 202 (acute immobilization test). Five concentrations (100, 180, 320, 560 and 1000 mg/L nominal) and a control were tested, with 15 daphnids (>24 h) per concentration. Test temperature was maintained at 20°C. Motality or immobility were appreciated at 48 h exposure at concentrations equal and above 180 mg/L. Appreciated mortality is probably caused by the highly acidic nature of test solutions above 320 mg/L (pH 3.2 - 4.5).

Results obtained allow to conclude that malic acid has a low low toxicity towards Daphnia magna, with an L(E)C50 48 h of 240 mg/L and an acute NOEC estimated at 100 mg/L.

Given that potassium sodium tartrate is a structurally very similar the C4 dicarboxyllic acid salts and acids tested the result are considered as relevant towards read-across. However it is likely that test results performed with a sodium or potassium salt of malic acid, instead than with malic acid, are likely to be lower due to the lower acidity expected from the resulting test solutions.

In addition, the LC50 estimated value (894 mg/L) for Daphnia Magna using the MultiCASE model included in the DK EPA database shows the low accute toxicity of the potassium sodium tartrate to aquatic invertebrates. This estimation is considered appropriate in a weight of evidence approach.