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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
29.09.2014 - 16.12.2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L
- Sampling method: Samples were taken directly after test solution preparation and after 48 hours.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: none, samples were analysed immediately.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Preparation of WAF according to OECD guidedance No. 23 and 29.
The test item was added to the dilution water and stirred for 24 hours at ca. 20 °C. Insoluble parts were separated from the aqueous phase by filtration (0.22 μm PES membrane). The obtained solution was used as the highest test concentration. All other test concentrations were obtained by dilution of the highest test concentration.The test solutions were freshly prepared before test start.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Strain: Clone V
- Source: German Federal Environment Agency, Institut für Wasser-, Boden und Lufthygiene. Specimens used in the test were bred in the laboratory of the Fraunhofer IME.
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 4 - 24 h
- Method of breeding: Batches of 30 - 50 specimen were held at room temperature in 1.8 L dilution water for one week and fed with a suspension of Desmodesmus subspicatus.
- Feeding during test: none

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
1.1 mmol/L
Test temperature:
19.4 – 19.9 °C
pH:
7.9 – 8.2
Dissolved oxygen:
8.2 - 8.8 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal substance concentration: 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L
The nominal substance concentrations correspond to: 0.64, 1.27, 2.55, 5.10, and 10.19 mg boron/L
The mean measured boron concentrations: 0.014, 0.027, 0.043 0.079 and 0.135 mg/L (between 1.3 and 2.2 % of nominal loading)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: glass beakers, covered with glass planes
- Material, size, fill volume: glass, 50 mL nominal volume, 50 mL fill volume
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: purified drinking water
- Alkalinity: 2.2 mmol/L
- Conductivity: 235 μS/cm

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 16:8 h day-night regime
- Light intensity: 810 – 918 lx

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
Mobility after 0, 24 and 48 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study:
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: No effects up to 100 mg/L (non-GLP)
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 0.135 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
other: mg boron/L
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 0.135 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
other: mg boron/L
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.135 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
other: mg boron/L
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: no
- Mortality of control: no
- Other adverse effects control: no
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Test with the reference substance were conducted in regular intervalls.
The latest test resulted in a 24 h EC50 value of 1.35 mg/L (95% CL: 1.20 – 1.53 mg/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical calculations were performed using the computer programme ToxRat®
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
09 Mar - 11 Mar 1999
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Only short abstract available
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Stock solution was prepared with 10000 g test substance per litre dilution water, which was also used for test solutions.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Source: Dr. Knie LWA
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 6 - 24 h
- Method of breeding: In drink water at room temperature (20 ± 1°C) with diffuse light (16h daily). Young daphnids were separated daily for test performance. Daphnids were fed daily with cells of Scenedesmus subspicatus.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
21.1 - 22.0°C at 0h
20.8°C at 48 h
pH:
2.86 - 7.31 at 0h
2.67 - 7.28 at 48h
Dissolved oxygen:
7.6 - 7.9 at 0h
7.2 - 7.4 at 48h
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400 and 10000 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Intervals of water quality measurement: pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured at the begin and end of test.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): After 24 and 48 h immobile daphnids were deteremined.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 10, 100, 1000 and 10000 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: 100% immobile daphnids after 48h at 1000 and 10000 mg/L test concentration.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
610 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2 200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
3 200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility

The pH of the two highest test concentrations does not remain in the range 6 -9 according to OECD 202. Nevertheless, the pH of the six other test concentrations is in this range 6 -9. Thus, these six test concentrations could be used for evaluation.

Immobile daphnids and water quality measurements

Conc. of test substance [mg/L]

Immobile daphnids [%]

Dissolved oxygen [mg/L]

Water temperature [°C]

pH

24h

48h

24h

48h

24h

48h

24h

48h

Control

0

0

7.9

7.3

21.1

20.8

7.31

7.23

10000

100

100

7.8

7.2

22.0

20.8

2.86

2.67

6400

100

100

7.8

7.3

21.8

20.8

4.04

3.16

3200

40

100

7.7

7.3

21.8

20.8

6.03

6.01

1600

0

0

7.8

7.3

21.8

20.8

6.56

6.80

800

0

0

7.7

7.4

21.9

20.8

6.79

7.22

400

0

0

7.6

7.3

21.2

20.8

6.92

7.28

200

0

0

7.8

7.3

21.3

20.8

6.94

7.23

100

0

0

7.7

7.3

21.2

20.8

6.81

7.16

 

Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The influence of Boron orthophosphate (CAS 13308-51-5) on immobilization of daphnids of the species Daphnia magna was investigated in a static OECD 202 test under GLP conditions. For this, the daphnids were placed in water containing the test item in a series of concentrations. Effects on immobilization were determined after 24 and 48 hours. Samples of fresh and aged test solutions were measured for test item concentrations. Considering of low water solubility, the highest nominal test substance concentration was prepared following the Water Accommodated Faction (WAF) approach according to the OECD guidance documents No. 23 and 29 to obtain the maximal solubility of the test item under the test conditions. The daphnids were exposed to a series of dilutions obtained from a filtrated eluate of a 100 mg/L loading. For the determination of daphnid immobilization four replicates of the control (test medium only) and four replicates of each test concentration were exposed to theoretical loadings of:

Nominal test item loadings: Control, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L, equivalent to

Nominal boron loading Control, 0.64, 1.27, 2.55, 5.10 and 10.19 mg B/L

 

The concentrations of boron in the test media were determined in the aqueous phase at the start and at the end of the test using ICP-OES (LOQ 0.58 μg B/L). At test start, the measured boron concentrations were between 1.3 and 1.6 % of nominal loading. The boron concentrations maintained stable at all test substance concentrations throughout the test period (1.4 – 2.8 % at test end). , The test evaluation was based on the nominal test substance concentration and the mean measured concentrations. The mean measured boron concentrations were 0.014, 0.027, 0.043, 0.079 and 0.135 mg/L (between 1.3 and 2.2 % of nominal loading). There were no concentration-dependent effects on immobilization up to the highest test concentrations of 0.135 mg boron per liter. The EC50 value for immobilization was set to be higher than the highest test concentration of 0.135 mg boron per liter (> 100 mg/L test item nominal).

 

A second study according to OECD 202 without GLP (Institute Fresenius, 1999) showed an EC50 (48h) of 2200 mg/L without analytical verification and no toxicity up to a nominal concentration of 610 mg/L.