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EC number: 236-337-7
CAS number: 13308-51-5
Boron orthophosphate (CAS 13308-51-5) is an
inorganic boron phosphate salt. The substance does not undergo
biological degradation and in general, abiotic degradation of the
substance as such is an irrelevant process for inorganic substances that
are assessed on an elemental basis. Boron and phosphorus are both
natural elements present in all environmental compartments. The elements
boron and phosphorus are persistent in environment. When exposed to
water Boron orthophosphate would likely undergo sedimentation due to low
water solubility. Boron orthophosphate transforms to undissociated boric
species and borates, as well as (di) hydrogenphosphate, which are the
naturally occurring forms of boron and phosphorous in environment.
However, no further degradation is possible. The only significant
mechanism expected to influence the fate of boron in water is
adsorption-desorption reactions with soil and sediment (Rai et al.,
Boron is ubiquitous in the environment and an
essential micronutrient for many organisms, e. g. for plant growth.
Plants may require boron to stimulate ascorbate metabolism, which was
demonstrated in recent studies (Mastromatteo E., Sullivan F. 1994).
Boron will normally occur in low concentrations (U. S. EPA 1975), e. g.
in natural freshwater ecosystems, surface water concentrations are
usually less than 0.1 mg/L and concentrations of more than 1 mg/L will
be rarely exceed (United States Department of the Interior 1998). But
boron compounds can be degraded or transformed to boric species and
borates, the main compounds of ecological significance (Sprague 1972),
which both show remarkable stability in natural aquatic systems. The
chemical form of boron found in water is dictated by pH and other
constituents (Sprague 1972), but in most freshwater systems (pH<9)
undissociated boric acid will occur (Hem 1970, Maier and Knight 1991).
Boron, if not taken up by plants and animals, will tend to accumulate
and will be bioavailable over extended periods of time (Perry et al.
1994). Thus, boron compounds tend to accumulate in aquatic ecosystems
(U. S. EPA 1975), but do not seem to biomagnify through the food chain
(Wren et al. 1983; Saiki et al. 1993). BCF < 100 was calculated for
boron in freshwater plants, fish and invertebrates (Thompson et al.
1972). Experimental BCF between 52 and 198 were determined for fish
(Tsui and McCart 1981) and a BCF = 0.3 was calculated for fathead
minnows (Pimephales promelas) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)
(Suloway et al. 1983). Therefore, boron will not bioaccumulate in
Orthophosphates are also formed by natural
hydrolysis of human urine and faeces, animal wastes, food and organic
wastes, mineral fertilisers, bacterial recycling of organic materials in
ecosystems, etc. Phosphates are bio-assimilated by the bacterial
populations and the aquatic plants and algae found in these different
compartments and are an essential nutrient (food element) for plants,
and stimulate the growth of water plants (macrophytes) and/or algae
(phytoplankton) if they represent the growth-limiting factor.
Boron may be found in four forms in soil:
organically bound, water-soluble, adsorbed and fixed in clay and mineral
lattics (Adriano 1986). The highest concentration of Boron can be found
in arid, saline soils. In sandy soils, boron could be leached more
readily than in clay soils and is therefore less likely to accumulate
(Adriano 1986). Boron can bind with clays, suspended matter, and
sediments of aquatic systems (Maier and Knight 1991). Boron adsorption
is also reported on clay minerals (Hingston 1964) and on hydrous oxides
of Fe and Al (Sims and Bingham, 1968). The adsorption of Boron from
solution by Ca forms will be described as a function of pH and boron
concentration in solution. Adsorption coefficients were estimated to be
2.94, 11.8 and 15.1 µmole/g for Ca-kaolinite, Ca-montmorillionite and
kaolinite (Keren & Mezuman 1981). As less than 5 percent of the soil
boron is available for plant uptake (Butterwick et al. 1989), a high
uptake is not expected for plants.
The availability of inorganic phosphorus in
soils depends on precipitation-dissolution and sorption-desorption
processes (Cornforth, 2005). Phosphorus ions are mainly immobilised in
soils by adsorption to organic matter or by reaction with aluminium or
iron to aluminium- and ironphosphates. Sato et al. (2009) observed that
Phosphorus released from calciumphosphate was adsorbed to aluminium and
The air compartment is considered not
relevant for Boron orthophosphate. Due to its physico-chemical
properties, Boron orthophosphate is not distributed or transported to
the atmosphere as the substance is usually not emitted to air.
Adriano, D. C. (1986). Trace elements in the
terrestrial environment. Springer-Verlag, New York. 533 p.
Butterwick, L. N. De Oude, and K. Raymond
(1989). Safety assessment of boron I aquatic and terrestrial
environments. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 17: 339-371.
Cornforth, I. S. (2005). The fate of
phosphate fertilisers in soil. Department of Soil Science, Lincoln
University online: www. nzic. org. nz.
Hem, J. D. (1970). Study and interpretation
of the chemical characteristics of natural water, 2d ed. U. S.
Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1473.
Hingston, F. J. (1964) Reactions between
boron and clays.Aust. J. Soil Res. 2,
Keren, R. and U. Mezuman (1981).Boron
adsorption ny clay minerals using a phenomenological equation. Clays and
Clay Minerals. Vol. 29, No. 3, 198-204.
Maier, K. J., and A. W. Knight (1991). The
toxicity of waterborne boron to Daphnia magna and Chironomus decorus and
the effects of water hardness and sulfate on boron toxicity. Arch.
Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20: 282-287.
Mastromatteo, E. and Sullivan, F. (1994)
Summary: International Symposium on the Health Effects of Boron and Its
Compounds. Environ Health Perspect 102 (Suppl 7): 139 – 141
Perry, D. M., Suffet, I. S. et al (1994)
Boron environmental chemistry, distribution, bioaccumulation, and
toxicity in aquatic systems and recommendations for establishment of a
boron water quality criterion for natural waters in the San Joaquin
Valley, California. Final report for contract number 1-192-150-0,
submitted to the California Regional Water Quality Control Board,
Central Valley Region, and the California Environmental Protection
Agency. 270 p.
Rai, D., J. M. Zachara, A. P. Schwab, R.
Schmidt, D. Girvin, and D. Rogers (1986). Chemical attenuation rates,
coefficients, and constants in leachate migration. Vol. 1. A critical
review. Report to Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA by
Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA. Research Project
2198-1. (As cited in ATSDR, 1992.)
Saiki, M. K., Jennings, M. R., and Brumbaugh,
W. G. (1993). Boron, molybdenum, and selenium in aquatic food chains
from lower San Joaquin River and its tributaries, California. Arch.
Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24: 307-319.
Sato et al. (2009) Biogenic calcium phosphate
transformation in soils over millennial time scales. Journal of Soils
Sediments (2009) 9:194–205
Sims, J. R. and Bingham, F. T. (1968)
Retention of boron by layer silicates, sesquioxides and soil minerals.
II. Sesquioxides. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 32, 364-369
Sprague, R. W. (1972) The ecological
significance of boron. U. S. Borax Research Corporation, Anaheim,
Suloway, J. J., Roy, W. R., Skelly, T. M.
Dickerson, D. R. Schuller, R. M. and Griffin, R. A. (1983). Chemical and
toxicological properties of coal fly ash. Champaign, Illinois, Illinois
Thompson, S. E., Burton, C. A., Quinn, D. J.,
et al. 1972. Concentration factors of chemical elements in edible
aquatic organisms. Report to U. S. Atomic Energy Commission by Lawrence
Livermore Laboratory, Unviversity of California, Livermore, CA.
UCRL-50564. Cited In: ATSDR, 1992.
Tsui, P. T., and McCart, P. J. 1981.
Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues and heavy metals in several fish
species from the Cold Lake area in Alberta, Canada. Intern J Environ
Anal Chem 10: 277-285. Cited In: ATSDR, 1992.
United States Department of the Interior
(1998) Guidelines for Interpretation of the Biological Effects of
Selected Constituents in Biota, Water and Sediment. National Irrigation
Water Quality Program Information Report No. 3.
U. S. EPA (United States Environmental
Protection Agency). 1975. Preliminary investigation of effects on the
environment of boron, indium, nickel, selenium, tin, vanadium and their
compounds. Vol. 1. Boron. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Rep.
56/2- 75-005A. 111pp. Cited In: Eisler, 1990.
Wren, C. D., MacCrimon, H. R. and Loescher,
B. R. (1983). Examination of bioaccumulation and biomagnification of
metals in a Precambrian shield lake. Water Air Soil Pollut 19: 277-291.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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