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EC number: 281-092-1
CAS number: 83863-30-3
Extractives and their physically modified derivatives such as tinctures, concretes, absolutes, essential oils, oleoresins, terpenes, terpene-free fractions, distillates, residues, etc., obtained from Cananga odorata, Annonaceae.
uptake is expected based on information from the available studies
(acute and repeated dose oral toxicity) and the favourable physico
chemical parameters. Dermal absorption would be possible based on
information from available studies (sensitisation) and physicochemical
parameters. Relatively wide distribution and excretion through urine is
expected based on low/moderate water solubility and low molecular
weights. The absorption values to be used for hazard assessment are
therefore taken as 100% for the inhalation route, 50% for the oral route
and 7.47 % for the dermal route.
evaluation of Ylang Ylang Ext/I/II (CAS: 83863-30-3 / EC 281-092-1)
based on existing data
indicates that an “assessment of the toxicokinetic behaviour of the
substance to the extent that can be derived from the relevant available
information” should be performed at Annex VIII level.
Ylang Ext/I/II is a substance of Unknown or Variable composition,
Complex reaction products or Biological material (UVCB substances), or
more specifically a NCS (Natural Complex Substance). As such, the
essential oil of Ylang Ylang Ext/I/II obtained from the flowers of
Cananga odorata (Annonaceae) by steam distillation.
1 Ylang Ylang Ext/I/II constituents
range % (typical)
502-61-4 / 26560-14-5
0.20 -20.00 %
1.70 -15.00 %
3,7,11-Trimethyldodeca-2,6,10-trienyl acetate/ Farnesyl acetate
Other minor constituent and unspecified compounds
distribution, metabolism and excretion data onYlang
Ylang Oil Ext/I/IIitself are not
available and therefore the toxicokinetic assessment is based on the
available toxicology data for the main constituents of theUVCB
(typical around 60 %).
from physico chemical and toxicity studies
overview of the relevant physicochemical parameters forYlang
Ylang Oil Ext/I/IIis provided below:
2 physicochemical parameters
Ylang Ylang Oil Ext/I/II
Water solubility (mg/l)
0.43-5043.40 mg/L at 25°C
22.23 Pa at 25°C
As the molecular weight range of this UVCB is below 300, the molecules
in this UVCB are likely to be absorbed via the oral/GI tract.Uptake
through aqueous pores or carriage of such molecules across membranes
with the bulk passage of water in the GI tract can be
expected.Furthermore uptake by passive diffusion is unlikely based on
the log Kow value of Ylang Ylang ext/I/II. The oral absorption of the
more highly lipophilic constituents of this UVCB (log Kow > 4) may be
more dependent on micellar solubilisation.
on the previous, the substance could be absorbed in the human body via
the oral route. This is supported by the findings in the repeated dose
toxicity study where liver and kidney effects were observed at 718 mg/kg
bw, and increased liver weights and kidney weights were found in mice
following repeated dose administration, these findings confirm that
systemic absorption of the substance via the gastrointestinal tract can
on the physico chemical properties of the substance, its molecular
weight would not exclude dermal uptake, and its water solubility and
logP value would predict low to moderate absorption of at least a part
of its constituents (ECHA guidance, 7.12, Table R.7.12-3). In
a dermal toxicity study no acute dermal toxicity was observed in rabbits
exposed to 5000 mg/kg bw. Furthermore,
even though Ylang Ylang Ext/I/II is not a corrosive, the skin irritating
properties observed in the read across in vivo skin irritation test
suggest that this UVCB may damage the skin and thereby increase its
penetrating potential (see read-across justification for rerference). As
this UVCB is considered sensitising, some uptake must occur, although
this may only be applicable for specific constituents.
order to assess the potential for dermal absorption, the absorption of
all components in this UVCB was calculated using the IH Skinperm tool
version 2.0. In the model the following input was used as a worst-case,
which resulted in the highest dermal absorption:
deposition: 100 mg;
skin area: 1,000 cm2;
skin adherence: 7 mg/cm2;
of stagnant air: 10 cm;
time: up to maximum dermal absorption (taking evaporation into account)
substance specific input for Skinperm was taken from the QPRF document
and Substance Identity Profile. Missing information was taken from
reliable sources such as the ECHA substance database, the Gestis
substance database, Dohsbase or Chemspider. The following input was used:
3 Input Skinperm
Typical conc. (% w/w)
Vapour pressure (Pa)
Water solubility (mg/L)
Max skin adherence (mg/cm2)
Dermal fraction absorbed %
sum of the weighted permeability calculated using the IH Skinperm tool
was 7.47 % and this will be used for risk assessment. This number is
corrected for the unknown and minor constituents not taken into account
in the Skinperm modelling.
lipophilicity of the main constituents (log Kow >4), and a low water
solubility indicate that uptake via the lungs may be mainly via
micellular solubilisation. The constituents with a more moderate log Kow
values (between -1 and 4) would favour absorption directly across the
respiratory tract epithelium by passive diffusion. These
physico-chemical properties would also facilitate absorption directly
across the respiratory tract epithelium following aspiration.
of Ylang Ylang Ext/I/II and its major constituents is expected based on
the relatively low molecular weights. Also distribution throughout the
body would be possible due to the wide water solubility ranges. As the
higher Log Kow range suggests the possibility for distribution into
cells, a higher intracellular concentration is expected, especially in
fatty tissues. Signs of toxicity and target organs suggest that the
substance is at least distributed to the liver and kidney.
information on metabolism can be derived from the physicochemical data
that is available for Ylang Ylang Ext/I/II. Also, no information on
metabolism of the UVCB is available from specific studies. However, one
of the main constituents; Caryophyllene beta is known to have an
(inhibitory) effect on CYP3A Cytochrome p450 enzyme activities.
Hepatic phase 1 metabolism mediated by P450 enzymes may therefore an
important first step in the metabolic pathway for this UVCB.
on the male-rat specific renal effects observed in the OECD TG 422
study, excretion is expected to take place via the kidney. This is
supported by the relatively low molecular weights of the constituents.
Excretion via bile is not likely, as in the rat it has been found that
substances with molecular weights below around 300 do not tend to be
excreted into the bile (Renwick, 1994).
Some excretion via breast milk, saliva and sweat is cannot be excluded,
as some constituents of the UVCP can be regarded as lipophilic (Log Kow
is the potential for the more highly lipophilic constituents of this
UVCB (log P >4) to accumulate in individuals that are frequently exposed
(e.g. daily at work) to these substances. Once exposure stops, the
concentration within the body will decline at a rate determined by the
half-life of the substance (Rozman and Klaassen, 1996).
information from Reach dossier relevant for toxicokinetic assessment
Ylang Ylang Ext/I/II
Skin irritation / corrosivity
Ylang Ylang Ext/I/II is an irritant to skin.
Oral toxicity data
Coma and chromodacryorrhea were observed at 5000 mg/kg bw
Dermal toxicity data
No mortality or clinical signs of toxicity.
Skin sensitisation data
Classified for skin sensitization (Skin Sens. 1B / H317)
Repeated dose toxicity
Liver and kidney effects were observed following repeated dose administration.
LT . The inhibitory effects of β-caryophyllene, β-caryophyllene oxide
and α-humulene on the activities of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes
in rat and human liver in vitro. Chem Biol Interact. 2017 Dec 25; 278:
123-128. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
AG (1994) Toxicokinetics - pharmacokinetics in toxicology. In Hayes,A.W.
(ed.) Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Raven Press, New York, USA,
KK and Klaassen CD (1996) Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of
Toxicants. In: Klaassen CD (Ed.) Cassarett and Doull's Toxicology:
The Basic Science of Poisons. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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