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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

No relevant effects

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

This endpoint is covered by the category approach for soluble iron salts (please see the section on physical and chemical properties for the category justification/report format). 

Testing for this endpoint has been waived in accordance with column 2 and Annex XI, part 1 and 2, restrictions.

Information from Literature Searches and earlier Assessment Approaches

The literature reviews of Vangheluwe & Versonnen (2004), Johnson et al. (2007) and OECD (2007) revealed some data. The results of the studies, selected as “reliable” by the respective authors are listed in the following tables. Nonetheless the experiments must be rated “not reliable” (Klimisch 3) according to the Klimisch et al. (1997) scale due to methodological objections against testing of aquatic organisms as concluded in the beginning of this chapter (section „Ecotoxicological information“). True, intrinsic toxicity of iron kations in aerobic aquatic test organisms cannot be determined in studies when the solubility of the dissolved ferric kation (as the ferrous form will readily be oxidized to ferric species) is exceeded. None of the experiments found effects at such low levels (depend on pH, section “water solubility”). Notwithstanding the methodological objections formally expressed in the waiving argument for the standard aquatic test organisms, the following data are mentioned for completeness.

Freshwater species:

Table: Data from the EURAS critical review (Vangheluwe & Versonnen 2004, table 3, p 12-13 & table 4, p 18 & table 5, p 21)

STANDARD SPECIES: Crustaceans (daphnids)

Test
substance

Test organism

Test medium

Test
conditions

Nominal / Measured

Duration

Endpoints

NOEC [mg/L]

LOEC
[mg/L]

L(E)C50 [mg/L]

Reference

Reliability

FeCl3.6H2O

Daphnia pulex

Reconstituted ASTM water

pH: 7.6; T: 20; H: 94; Alk: 48

To, TD, T2

21 days

Immobility

2.51

5.01

 

Birge et al. 1985

R1

Total offspring

0.63

1.26

 

Brood size

0.63

1.26

 

Aborted eggs

1.26

2.51

 

Length

1.26

2.51

 

FeCl3.6H2O

Daphnia magna

Lake Superior water

pH: 7.7; T: 18 (room T); static renewal

To

3 weeks

Immobility, reproduction

 

 

EC50 immobility: 5.9

Biesinger & Christensen 1972

R1

 

 

EC50 reproduction: 5.2

 

 

EC16 reproduction: 4.4

FeSO4.7H2O

Daphnia magna

River water

pH: 7.7-7.9;T: 15.7-22.6

To

2 weeks

Reproduction

0.52

0.62

 

van Anholt et al. 2002

R2

NON-STANDARD SPECIES: Insects

FeSO4

Acroneuria lycorias

Carbon filtered Lake Superior water

pH: 7.25-8.2; H: 44-50; Alk: 40-72; T: 18

To

2 weeks

Survival

 

 

LT50 of 9 days at:16

Warnick & Bell 1969

R2

Ephemerella subvaria

 

 

LT50 of 96 h at: 0.32

Hudropsyche betteni

 

 

LT50 of 7 days at: 16

Alk: alkalinity [mg/L CaCO3]

H: hardness [mg/L CaCO3]

N: Nominal concentration

R1: Reliable without restriction according to the scheme of the authors (set out in chapter 3.2, p 6, of their publication), corrected to Klimisch 3 “not reliable” as discussed above

LT50: 50 % survival time

R2: Reliable with restrictions according to the authors (set out in chapter 3.2, p 6, of their publication), corrected to Klimisch 3 “not reliable” as discussed above.

R3: Not reliable according to the authors (set out in chapter 3.2 of their publication)

T: temperature [°C]

T2: total Fe(II) ion measured

TD: dissolved total Fe measured

To: total Fe measured

Table: Additional data according to Johnson et al. (2007, table 2.7, p 22 -23)

Scientific name

Common name

Endpoint

Effect

Test duration [d]

Concentration [mg/L] #

Exposure

Toxicant analysis

Comments (Author's Reliability)

Reference

Daphnia carinata

Water flea

NOEC

Growth

10

0.53

ss

y

van Dam et al. 1999

NOEC

Reproduction

0.54

Daphnia carinata

Water flea

NOEC

Mortality

10

1.5

ss

y

van Dam et al. 1998

Daphnia magna

Water flea

LOEC

Reproduction

21

4.4

ss

y

As FeCl3; pH 7.74

Biesinger & Christensen 1972

LOEC

5.2

Daphnia magna

Water flea

NOEC

Reproduction

21

0.16

ss

y

As FeCl3; pH 7.0–8.0 (R2)

Dave 1984

Asellus aquaticus

Isopod adult

LC50

Mortality

9

256–383

s

y

As FeSO4; pH 4.5

Maltby et al. 1987

431–467

As FeSO4; pH 6.5

Gammarus minus

Amphipod coupled

adults

NOEC

Mortality

7

4.2

f

y

As FeSO4; pH 7.2

Sykora et al. 1972

Gammarus pulex

Amphipod

NOEC

Feeding rate

6

1.0

s

y

As FeSO4; pH

6.6–7.9 (R3)

Maltby & Crane 1994

LOEC

2.0

n

Chematopscyche sp.

Caddisfly

NOEC

Emergence

4

4.0

s

n

As FeSO4; pH 7.25 (R3)

Warnick & Bell 1969

Leptophlebia marginata

Mayfly (larvae)

NOEC

Mortality

30

20

ss

y

As FeSO4; pH 4.5

Gerhardt 1992

LOEC

50

As FeSO4; pH 4.5

NOEC

50

As FeSO4; pH 7.0

# Concentration related to iron if not stated otherwise under comments (third-to-last column)

R1: Reliable without restrictions according to the authors (set out in Annex 1, p 56 of their publication), corrected to Klimisch 3 “not reliable” as discussed above.

R2: Reliable with restrictions according to the authors (set out in Annex 1, p 56 of their publication), corrected to Klimisch 3 “not reliable” as discussed above.

R3: Not reliable according to the authors (set out in Annex 1, p 56 of their publication)

d = dissolved.

Exposure: s = static; ss = semi-static; f = flow-through.

Toxicant analysis: y = measured; n = not measured.

Table: Additional data from the OECD (2007) assessment (table 24, p 67 -68

Test substance

Test organism

Test duration

Effect

Endpoint [mg Fe/L]

Reference

Author’s Reliability

STANDARD SPECIES

Fe2(SO4)3

Daphnia longispina

21 days

Reproduction at pH 7.0-8.0

EC50: 4.5 (n.t)

Randall et al. 1999

R2

FeSO4.7H2O

Daphnia magna

21 days

Reproduction at pH 7.0-8.5

10 (n.ts, NOEC),

MOE, Japan 2002

R1

13 (n.ts, LOEC)

2 (n.t, NOEC)

2.6 (n.t, LOEC)

FeSO4.7H2O

Arrenurus manubriator, Water mite

15 days

Deutonymph mortality

200 (m.d, LOEC)

Rousch et al. 1997

R1

Adult male mortality at pH 4.0

800 (m.d, NOEC)

FeSO4.7H2O

Chironomus riparius, Midge

15 days

Egg hatch

1000 (m.d, NOEC

Rousch et al. 1997

R1

Larval mortality at pH 4.0

200 (m.d, LOEC)

NON- STANDARD SPECIES

FeSO4.7H2O

Brachionus calyciflorus, Rotifer

24 h

Survival

12 (n.t)

Calleja et al. 1994

R2

n.t. = nominal total Fe

m.d = measured dissolved Fe

Saltwater species:

No relevant data were reported by Vangheluwe & Versonnen (2004) and OECD (2007).

Table: Data according to Johnson et al. (2007, table 2.8, p 28)

Scientific name

Common name

Endpoint

Effect

Test duration [d]

Concentration [mg/L] #

Exposure

Toxicant analysis

Comments (Author's Reliability)

Reference

Temora longicornis

Copepod

NOEC

Reproduction

18

5

ps

n

Iron waste; pH 6.9 (R3)

Bryant et al. 1984

LOEC

18

6

ps

n

Cancer anthonyi

Yellow crab eggs

NOEC

Hatching

7

1

static

not measured

As FeCl3; pH 7.8 (3)

Macdonald et al. 1988

LOEC

100

NOEC

100

LOEC

1000

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