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EC number: 247-148-4
CAS number: 25637-99-4
The following sources of information on observations of health effects in humans are available:Polder, A., Gabrielsen, G. W., Odland, J. Ø., Savinova, T. N., Tkachev, A., Løken, K. B. and Skaare, J. U. (2008a). Spatial and temporal changes of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) and brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Northern Russia. Science of the Total Environment (2008) Vol. 391, pp. 41-54.Polder, A., Thomsen, C., Lindström, G., Løken and Skaare, J. U. (2008b). Levels and temporal trends of chlorinated pestcides, polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in individual human breast milk samples from Northern and Southern Norway. Chemosphere (2008) Vol. 73, pp. 14-23.Colles, A., Koppen, G., Hanot, V., Nelen, V., Dewolf, M. -C., Noël, E., Malisch, R., Kotz, A., Kypke, K., Biot, P., Vinkx, C. and Schoeters, G. (2008). Fourth WHO-coordinated survey of human milk persistent organic pollutants (POPs): Belgian results. Chemosphere (2008) Vol. 73, pp. 907-914.Eljarrat, E., Guerra, P., Martínez, E., Farré, M., Alvarez, J. G., López-Teijón, M. and Barceló, D. (2009). Hexabromocyclododecane in Human Breast Milk: Levels and Enantiomeric Patterns. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2009) Vol. 43, pp. 1940-1946.Kakimoto, K., Akutsu, K., Konishi, Y. and Tanaka, Y. (2008). Time trend of hexabromocyclododecane in breast milk of Japanese women. Chemosphere (2008) Vol. 71, pp. 1110-1114.Polder et al. (2008a; 2008b) and Colles et al. (2008) were all awarded reliability scores of 2 according to the criteria of Klimisch et al. (1997) based upon the methodologies (based upon WHO test guideline) and the depth of reporting of test methods and results. Eljarrat et al. (2009) and Kakimoto et al. (2008) were both assigned reliability scores of 4 due to insufficient reporting to allow for a reliability assessment.
The sample collection phase of the Polder et al. (2008a; 2008b) and
Colles et al. (2008) studies were conducted as part of the 3rd
WHO-coordinated exposure study and were collected from primapara mothers
which had been pre-screened for suitability for the study. Mothers
provided informed consent and medical authorities for the sampled
countries were involved in order to prevent coercion. The following
results were reported from these studies:
Eljarrat et al. (2009) was conducted by analysing samples of breast milk
collected 40 days post partum from consenting mothers. Mothers provided
consent and the study was conducted in accordance with Spanish
regulations and a local ethical committee. Extracted samples were
analysed by liquid chromatography for diastereoisomers and by a chiral
chromatographic column for enantiometric analysis. The registered
substance was detected in 30 out of 33 samples at concentration levels
ranging between 3 and 188 ng/g lw, based upon diastereoisomer levels
with mean and median concentration of 47 and 27 ng/g lw respectively.
Individual isomer levels were shown by enantiomeric analysis, the
following results were observed:
Kakimoto et al. (2008) investigated the trend of the registered
substance in breast milk from 1973 to 2006. Samples were collected days
30-90 postpartum, in all cases informed consent was received from the
mother. Samples were pooled per year and stored at 20ºC until clean-up.
Samples were extracted and analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass
spectrometry for levels of the registered substance.The study reported
an increase in the concentration of the registered substance in breast
milk from 1983 (<0.1 ng/g lw α-isomer, <0.1 ng/g lw β-isomer and <0.2
ng/g lw γ-isomer) to 2006 (1.4 ng/g lw α-isomer, <0.1 ng/g lw β-isomer
and <0.2-2.6 ng/g lw γ-isomer), which coincided with increased use of
the substance in household articles. Total concentrations of the HBCDD
increased from below the limit of detection in 1983 to 1.4-4.0 ng/g lw
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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