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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

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Additional information

Toxicity to macro-organisms

Aufderheide, J., Jones, A., MacGregor, J. A. and Nixon, W. B. (2003). Effect of Hexabromocyclododecane on the survival and reproduction of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Report no.: 47222. Report date: 2003 -01 -08.

Aufderheide et al. (2003) was conducted according to OECD Guideline 207 and EPA OPPTS 850.6200 and according to GLP conditions. Deviations from the test guidelines were not considered to have affected the reliability of the study and so the reliability of the study was scored as 1 according to the criteria of Klimisch et al. (1997). Adult Eisenia fetida (earthworm) was exposed to test material concentrations of 78.5, 157, 313, 625, 1,250, 2,500 and 5000 mg/kg dw soil for 28 days. No effects were noted on the test animals throughout the study period therefore based upon measured concentrations of the test material in soil a NOEC value of 4190mg/kg dw soil was derived and an EC50 value of >4190mg/kg dw soil was estimated for earthworm survival. Furthermore the test material was found not to bioaccumulate in the test animals. An EC50 value of 771 mg/kg dw soil (95% CL 225-4900mg/kg dw soil) was estimated for earthworm reproduction due to a dose-response linked reduction in juveniles in higher groups.

Toxicity to plants

Poch, J. R., Kendall, T. Z. and Krueger, H. O. (2002). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD): A Toxicity Test to Determine the Effects of the test substance on the seedling emergence of six species of plants. Report no.: WIL 439 -103. Report date: 2002-08-21.

Poch et al. (2002) was conducted according to OECD Guideline 208, EPA OPPTS 850.4100 and EPA OPPTS 850.4225 and under conditions of GLP. Although minor deviations from test guidelines were reported these were considered not to effect the reliability of the study results. Poch et al. (2002) was therefore awarded the reliability score of 1 according to the criteria of Klimisch et al. (1997). This study was performed on Zea mays (corn), Allium cepa (Onion), Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Cucumis sativus (Cucumber), Glycine max (G.soya) (Soybean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) using nominal test concentrations of 40, 105, 276, 725, 1904 and 5000 mg/kg dw soil with an exposure duration of 21 days. The test material was found to have no effect on seedling emergence, survival or growth for any of the test species. The NOEC for seedling emergence and growth in six species was determined to be 5000 mg/kg dw soil.

Toxicity to soil micro-organisms

Förster, B. (2007). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD): Effects on Soil Microorganisms. Report no.: AU1BB. Report date: 2007-04-25.

Förster (2007) was conducted in accordance with OECD Guideline 216 and under GLP conditions. Although minor deviations from the test guideline were reported these were considered not to affect the reliability of the study or study results. Test material was added to prepared test soils at concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg dw soil. The mean nitrate concentrations on day 28 were in the range of 56.1 mg kg-1 to 62.3 mg kg-1 soil dry mass in the control and treated soil samples. The variation of the nitrate concentrations within the three control specimens was less than ± 15% of the mean. Therefore, the validity criteria defined in the guideline have been fulfilled.The addition of HBCDD ranging from 10 to 1000 mg/kg dw soil (nominal concentrations) did not lead to any significant effect (ANOVA at p≤0.05) on the formation of nitrate in the treated soil samples as compared to the control soils. It can be concluded that the EC50 of HBCDD is >1000 mg/kg dry soil, whereas the NOEC is considered to be 1000 mg/kg dry soil.